IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT
QR CODE
IJSTR-QR Code

IJSTR >> Volume 3- Issue 2, February 2014 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



Effects Of Physiographic Units On The Relationship Between Cropping Frequency And Level Of Soil Erosion In Nyakach District, Kenya

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Maurice O. Kodiwo, Boniface O. Oindo, Francis Ang’awa, Dr. Esnah Kerubo Bosire

 

KEYWORDS

Index Terms: Cropping frequency, Soil erosion, Correlation, Physiographic units

 

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT : A number of scholars agree that farms which are cropped more frequently tend to exhibit lower levels of soil erosion than those that are cropped less frequently or left fallow. However, the effects of physiographic units on this relationship are not known. Most methods used to assess land degradation ignore the use of indicators of agricultural land use intensity and land degradation. They are too complex and ignore the role of physiography. This research looked at the effects of different physiographic units on the relationship between the frequency of cropping and the level of soil erosion in Nyakach District of Kenya. The study focused on establishing the relationship between cropping frequency and level of soil erosion in the Plateau, Scarp Slopes, Plains and Valley Bottoms. Purposive and simple random sampling was used to select 384 out of 29,214 farmsteads. Correlation and regression analyses were employed to assess the nature and strength of the relationship between the cropping frequency and the level of soil erosion in the four different physiographic units of Nyakach. Significant relationships occurred in all the four physiographic units with r = -0.347 for the Plateau, r = -0.318 for the Scarp Slopes, r = -0.412 for the Plains, and r = -0.43 for the Valley Bottoms. The researchers concluded that physiographic units have a significant influence on the relationship between cropping frequency and level of soil erosion in Nyakach District. It was therefore recommended that cropping frequency and level of soil erosion be used for assessing land degradation in specific physiographic units of Nyakach District.

 

REFERENCES

[1]. G. Nagle and P. Guinness, Geography. London: Hodder Education, 2011

[2]. P.L. Knox, and S.A. Marston, Human Geography: Places and Regions in Global Context . 5th ed. USA: Prentice Hall, 2009

[3]. P. Giller (ed.), How landscape structure, land-use intensity and habitat diversity affect components of total anthropod diversity in agricultural landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44[2], pp. 340-351, 2009

[4]. D. Tilman, Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: The need for sustainable and efficient practices. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United State of America, 2009

[5]. B. Block, Land Degradation Worse than Previously Reported. World watch Institute, 2008

[6]. R.E. Lee, W.B. Arthur, and A.C. Kelley (eds.), Population, Food, and Rural Development. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2004

[7]. T.G. Benton, J.A. Vickery and J.D. Wilson, Farmland Biodiversity: Is Habitat Heterogeneity the Key? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, pp.182-188, 2003

[8]. FAO, Bagar Farming (Baluwa khati) in river banks of Nepal. Available from teca.fao.org/es/read/7376. Accessed November 24, 2012

[9]. S.J. Scherr, Soil Degradation: A Threat to Developing Country Food Security by 2020. International Food Policy Research Institute – Food, Agriculture and the Environment Discussion Paper, 27, 2007

[10]. W.B. Harms, A.H.E. Stortelder and W. Vos, “Effects of Intensification of Agriculture on Nature and Landscape in the Netherlands”. In: M.G. Wolman & F.G.A. Fournier, (eds.) Land Transformation in Agriculture. SCOPE, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1987

[11]. A.L. Tukur, B.A. Bashir and A.M. Mubi, “Agricultural Land Use and Land Degradation in Adamawa State”. Global Journal of Environmental Science, 3[1], pp. 27-31, 2004

[12]. A.J. Ogunleye, A.O. Adeola and L.O. Ojo, “Impact of Farming Activities on Vegetation in Olokemeji Forest Reserve, Nigeria”. Available fromwww.gnest.org/journal/vol6_No2/Ogunleye9620131-140.pdf, 2004 Accessed February 20, 2013.

[13]. I. Okike, M.A. Jabbar and V. Manyong, Agricultural Intensification and Efficiency in the West African Savannas: Evidence from Northern Nigeria. Nairobi: ILRI, 2001

[14]. M. Matsa and K. Muringaniza, “An Assessment of the Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Shurugwi District, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe”. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 4[2], pp. 1-8, 2011

[15]. N.T. Hakansson, Social and Political Aspects of Intensive Agriculture in East Africa. Azania, 24, pp. 12-20, 1989

[16]. M. Tiffen, M. Mortimore and F. Gichuki, More People, Less Erosion: Environmental Recovery in Kenya. Chischester: Wiley, 1994

[17]. E. Boserup, The Conditions of Agricultural Growth. Chicago, Aldine Publishing Co, 1965

[18]. E. Boserup, “Population and Technology”. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1981

[19]. B.L. Turner and W.E. Doolittle, The Concept and Measure of Agricultural Intensity. The Professional Geographer, XXX[3], pp. 297-301, 1984

[20]. H. Ruthenberg, Farming Systems in the Tropics. London: Oxford University Press, 1984

[21]. R.P.C. Morgan, Estimating Regional Variations in Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal, 28, pp. 94-106, 1974

[22]. C. Jozefaciuk and A. Jozefaciuk, Gullies Net Density as a Factor of Water System Deformation in Vistula River Basin. In: K. BANASIK & A. ZBIKOWSKI (eds.) Runoff and Sediment Yield Modeling. Warsaw: Warsaw Agricultural University Press pp. 169-174, 1993

[23]. C.C. Thang, A. Euimnoh and G.P. Shivakoti, Spatial Modeling for Land Degradation Assessment Using Remotely Sensed Data and Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Daungnay Watershed, Magway District, Myanmar, 2007

[24]. W.M Marsh and J.M. Grossa Jnr. Environmental Geography: Science, Land Use, and Earth Systems. Canada: John Willey & Sons, Inc, 1996

[25]. J.D. Fellmann, A. Getis and J. Getis, Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008

[26]. B.K. Waruru, S.N. Wanjogu and J.K. Maina, The Influence of Soil Moisture and Related Soil Physical Properties on Gully Development in the Nyakach Area, Nyando District, Kenya. Dar es Salaam: LVEMP, 2005

[27]. P. Eyzaguirre, Agriculture and Environmental Research in Small Countries: Innovative Approaches to Strategic Planning. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1996

[28]. E.M. Bridges, World Soils. 3rd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997

[29]. A.B. Sjors, Erosion History of Ragen and Nyalunya Area, Nyando District, Kenya. Sweden: Uppsala University, 2001

[30]. NDDP, Nyando District Development Plan 2004-2008. Nairobi: Government Printer, 2003

[31]. R. Jaetzold and H. Schimdt, Farm Management Handbook of Kenya – Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information (Vol. II/A). Nairobi: Ministry of Agriculture, 1982

[32]. KPHC, 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census Vol. 1B Kenya National Bureau of Statistics Nairobi: Government Printer, 2010 Accessed February 14, 2011

[33]. L. Barring, Aspects of Daily rainfall Climate Relevant to Soil erosion in Kenya (Department of Physical Geography) Sweden: University of Lund, 1988

[34]. K. Kombo and L. Delon, Proposal and Thesis Writing: An Introduction. Nairobi: Paulines Publication Africa, 2006

[35]. A. Bryman, Social Research Methods. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008

[36]. IFAD, Gender and Household Food Security, 1998 Available from: http://www.ifad.org/gender/tools/hfs/anthropometry/ant_3.htm.

[37]. N.H. Nie, C.H. Hull and J.G. Jenkins, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Books Co, 1975

[38]. A.M. Gilroy, “Detecting Change in Soil Erosion in 8-Digit Hydrologic Units in Iowa: Correction between level of soil erosion and active conservation practices from 1992-1997”.Papers in Resource Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 1-10, 2006

[39]. D.P. Shrestha, “Assessment of Soil Erosion in the Nepalese Himalaya: A Case Study in Likhu Khola Valley, Middle Mountain Region”. Land Husbandry Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 59-80, 1997

[40]. E. Salchow and R. Lal, “Relating Crop Yields to Physiographic Attributes in Ohio Through Principal Component Analysis”: In D.E. Stott, R.H. Mohtar & Steinhardt (Eds), Sustaining the Global Farm. Selected papers from the 10th International Soil Conservation organization Meeting published by International Soil Conservation Organization, 2001. Available from: http://topsoil.nserl.purdue.edu/destott/default.htm. Accessed April 20, 2013.

[41]. A.B. Tobella, “Water infiltration in the Nyando River basin Kenya”. Examensarbeten Institutionnen for Skogens ekologi och skotsel, 2009