Spot Welding Parameter Optimization to Improve Weld Characteristics for Dissimilar Metals
Aravinthan Arumugam, MohdAmizi Nor
Index Terms: Diameter, indentation, parameter optimization, Taguchi Method, tensilestrength
Abstract: Resistance spot welding is a process which is widely used in the automotive industry to join steel parts of various thicknesses and types. The current practice in the automotive industry in determining the welding schedule, which will be used in the welding process, is based on welding table or experiences. This however may not be the optimum welding schedule that will give the best spot weld quality. This work concentrates on the parameter optimization when spot welding steels with dissimilar thickness and type using Grey Based Taguchi Method. The experimentation in this work used a L9 orthogonal array with three factors with each factor having three levels. The three factors used are welding current, weld time and electrode force. The three weld characteristics that were optimized are weld strength, weld nugget diameter and weld indentation. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) that was carried out showed that welding current gave the most significant contribution in the optimum welding schedule. The comparison test that was carried out to compare the current welding schedule and the optimum welding schedule showed distinct improvement in the increase of weld diameter and weld strengthas well as decrease in electrode indentation.
 S. Aslanlar, A. Ogur, U. Ozsarac, and E. lhan, E, “Effect of Welding Current on Mechanical Properties of Galvanized Chromided Steel Sheets in Electrical Resistance Spot Welding,” Materials and Design, vol. 28, pp. 2-7, 2007.
 M. Pouranvari, and S.P.H Marashi, S.P.H, “Factors Affecting Mechanical Properties of Resistance Spot Welds,” Materials Science and Technology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1137-1144, 2010.
 A.G. Thakur, T.E. Rao, M.S. Mukhedkar, and V.M. Nandedkar, “Application of Taguchi Method for Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel,”ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 22-26, 2010.
 A.G. Thakur, and V.M. Nandedkar, “Application of Taguchi Method to Determine Resistance Spot Welding Conditions of Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI304,” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, vol. 69, pp. 680-683, 2010.
 T. Wuttipornpun, “ Analysis of Welding Factors to Determine an Optimal Condition of Resistant Spot Welding Process,” The Journal of KMUTNB, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2010.
 M. Subramaniam, and V. Subramanian, “Effect of Process Parameters on SPRC35 Spot Welded Automotive Panels,” ActaMetallurgicaSinica, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 185-190, 2010.
 M. Hamedi, M. Shariatpanahi, and A. Mansourzadeh, A” Optimizing Spot Welding Parameters in a Sheet Metal Assembly by Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm, “ Proc. IMechE Part B: J. Engineering Manufacture,” vol. 221, pp. 1175-1184. 2007.
 M. Norasiah, Y.H.P. Manurung, M. Hafidzi, and S.K. Abas, “ A Quality Improvement Approach for Resistance Spot Welding using Multi-Objective Taguchi Method and Surface Response Methodology,”International Journal of Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 2, no.3, pp. 17-22, 2012.
 T. Kim, H. Park, and S. Rhee, “Optimization of Welding Parameters for Resistance Spot Welding of TRIP Steel with Surface Response Methodology,” International Research of Production Research, vol. 43, no. 21, pp. 4643-4657, 2005.
 H.L.Lin, T. Chou, and C.P. Chou, “ Optimization of Resistance Spot Welding Process using Taguchi Method and a Neural Network,” Experimental Techniques, pp. 30-36, 2007.
 K.S. Prasad, Ch.S. Rao, and D.NageswaraRao, “Application of Grey Relational Analysis for Optimizing Weld Bead Geometry Parameters of Pulsed Geometry Micro Plasma Arc Welded AISI 304L Stainless Steel Sheets,” International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 79-86, 2013.
 S. Niranjan Kumar, and Y. Vijayakumar, “Application of Taguchi method for optimization of resistance spot welding of austenitic stainless steel AISI 301L,” Innovative Systems Design and Engineering, vol. 3, no. 12, pp 49-61, 2012.
 C.J. Tzeng, Y.H. Lin, Y.K. Yang, and M.C. Jeng, “Optimization of Turning Operations with Multiple Performance Characteristics using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis,” Materials Processing Technology, vol. 209, no. 6, pp. 2753-2759, 2009.
 T.SadasivaRao, V. Rajesh, and A. Venu Gopal, “Taguchi Based Grey Relational Analysis to Optimize Face Milling Process with Multiple Performance Characteristics,” International Conference on trends in Industrial and Mechanical Engineering(ICTIME2012), Dubai, pp. 166-170, 2012.