Factor Analysis And Physico-Chemical Characteristics Of Calabar River, Southern Nigeria
Andem, Andem Bassey, Okorafor, Kalu Ama, Ekanem, Sunday Ben
Keywords: Factor analysis, Physico-characteristics, Calabar River, Nigeria
Abstract: Factor analysis were applied to investigate the most distributed and valuable factor as regards water quality parameters of Calabar River. Four sampling station were chosen along course of the River. Samples were collected monthly from January to December, 2013 usually between 7:00am to 10:00am. The physico-chemical parameters investigated in each case were surface water temperature, pH, dissolve oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) and heavy metals, all from surface water. The result of this study shows that Conductivity, TDS and TSS recorded for high positive loading of 0.641, 0.873 and 0.836 respectively for the first component while in the second component high positive loading of 0.751 and 0.639 were recorded for DO and BOD and for third component copper and cadmium recorded for high positive loading of 0.657 and 0.522 respectively during the dry season. During the wet season, high positive loading of 0.912, 0.864, 0.806, 0.786, 0.755, 0.666, 0.637 and 0.628 were recorded for DO, TDS, chromium, TSS, conductivity, surface water temperature , BOD and copper in the first component. pH and Iron had high positive loading of 0.737 and 0.697 respectively for second component and Lead recorded high positive loading of 0.811 for third component. The study reveal that chemical factors were more distributed and valuable than the physical factors, this means that contribution of Industrial and anthropogenic activities discharge into the River were clearly indicated by factor analysis. In other to restore our aquatic ecosystem, there is need to re-enforce environmental laws and guideline standard for effective water quality management.
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