International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 1, January 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Chirp Spread Spectrum For Narrow Band Long Range Bio Sensor Networks

[Full Text]



Aiju Thomas, N V Eldhose



Body Sensor Networks, BSNs, CSS, IoT, Post-discharge, LPN , LPWAN, SF.



The panoply of biosensors constituting Body Sensor Networks (BSN) is an imperative application of the Internet of Things (IoT) in Biomedical Engineering. Medical post-discharge monitoring is an emerging application of IoT where BSNs need to establish Low Power Networks (LPNs) for data exchange. Body sensors and radio forming BSNs are restricted in power especially when the patient is on the move. Power restrictions impose low computational capability of transceivers along with the need for low power connectivity with the monitoring hub. This study investigates the suitability of Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) as a modulation scheme for BSNs. CSS is characterized by inherent interference rejection properties and resilience to multipath fading and Doppler effects. Low power capability together with operation at Industry Scientific and Medical (ISM) band makes CSS ideal for setting up a low-cost ad-hoc network of bio-sensors in post-discharge monitoring. This study evaluates the suitability of CSS for establishing LPNs of bio-sensors through simulation of linear chirps at ISM band 868 MHz A mathematical model of chirp is explained and orthogonality with inverse chirps is demonstrated. Performances for Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) are evaluated for different spreading factors (SF).



[1] Luca Catarinucci, Danilo de Donno, Luca Mainetti, Luca Palano, Luigi Patrono and Maria Laura Stefaniz, ”An IoT-Aware Architecture for Smart Healthcare Systems,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, Vol 2, Issue 6, pp. 515-526, 2015.
[2] H. A. Khattak, M. Ruta, and E. Di Sciascio, ”CoAP-based healthcare sensor networks: a survey,” 11th,International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IB-CAST), Vol 2, Issue 6, pp. 499–503, Jan. 2014.
[3] Aiju Thomas and N V Eldhose , ”Scalability Concerns of Chirp Spread Spectrum for LPWAN applications”, International Journal of Ad hoc, Sensor and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 10, no.1, pp. 1–11, 2019.
[4] Guang-Zhong Yang, Omer Aziz, Richard Kwasnicki, Robert Merrifield, Ara Darzi, and Benny Lo, ”Body Sensor Networks–Research Challenges and Applications,” Springer-Verlag London, Vol 2, pp. 1-53, 2014.
[5] Ala Al-Fuqaha, Abdallah Khreishah, Mohsen Guizani, Ammar Rayes, and Mehdi Mohammadi, ”Toward better horizontal integration among IoT services,” IEEE Communications Magazine — Communications Standards Supplements, pp. 72-79,2015.
[6] ”An overview of the IEEE 802.15.4a Standard” Available online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5394030 (accessed on October 2018).

[7] APP1890,”An Introduction to Spread-Spectrum Communications,” http://www. maximintegrated.com/an1890, 1890, pp. 1-12, Feb 2003.
[8] Application Note, ”LoRaModulation Basics,” SEMTECHWireless and Sensing,AN1200.22, pp. 1-26, 2015.
[9] Designer’s Guide, ”SX1272/3/6/7/8: LoRa Modem,” SEMTECH Wireless and Sensing, AN1200.13, pp. 1-9, 2013.
[10] Quan Wang and Jin Jiang, ”Non-Linear Chirp Spread Spectrum Communication Systems of Binary Orthogonal Keying Mode,” Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository. 2898. https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/etd/ Vols 1, pp. 1-211, 2015.
[11] Guillaume Ferr´ e, Eric Simon. ”An introduction to Sigfox and LoRa PHY and MAC layers,”hal-01774080 pp. 1-7, 2015.
[12] I F Akyildiz, MPierobon, S Balasubramaniamn and Koucheryavy, ”The internet of Bio-Nano things,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol 53, Issue 3, pp. 32-40, 2015.
[13] M.Winkler, ”Chirp signals for communications”, IIEEEWESCON Convention Record, p. 7, 1962.
[14] A. Berni andW. Gregg, ”On the utility of chirp modulation for digital signaling”, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 748–751, June 1973.
[15] Aiju Thomas and N V Eldhose , ”Driver encapsulation and transfer for machine to machine (M2M) communication”, 2015 International Conference on Control Communication and Computing India (ICCC), vol. 1, pp. 659–663, 2015.
[16] D Zucchetto and A Zanella , ”Uncoordinated Access Schemes for the IoT: Approaches, Regulations, and Performance”, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 214–219, 2017.
[17] T. Smyth, ”Frequency Modulation (FM) Synthesis,” in School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University , 2013, pp. 1-29.
[18] Aiju Thomas and N V Eldhose , ”Performance Evaluation of Chirp Spread Spectrum as used in LoRa Physical layer”, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems Computation Automation and Networking (ISCAN), vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 214–219, 2019.
[19] Javed Iqbal Bangash, Abdul Hanan Abdullah, Mohammad Hossein Anisi and Abdul Waheed Khan, ”A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks ,” in Sensors, vol.14, pp. 1-29, 2014.
[20] Xiaochen Lai, Quanli Liu, Xin Wei, Wei Wang, Guoqiao Zhou and Guangyi Han, ”A Survey of Body Sensor Networks,” in Sensors, vol. 13, pp. 5406-5447, 2013.
[21] N Sornin and A Yegin, ”LoRaWAN 1.0.3 Specifications,” in LoRa Alliance, vol. ver 1.0, no.3, pp. 1-72, 2018.
[22] Jinyuan Sun, Yuguang Fang and Xiaoyan Zhu, ”Privacy and Emergency Response in E-Healthcare Leveraging Wireless Body Sensor Networks,” in IEEE Wireless Communications
[23] Xiaowei Wang, Minrui Fei and Xin Li, ”Performance of chirp spread spectrum in wireless communication systems,” 11th IEEE Singapore International Conference on Communication Systems , Vol 1, pp. 466-469, 2008.