International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 4, April 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Analysis Of Priority Literacy Determination In Early Childhood Through Analitycal Hierarchy Process (AHP)

[Full Text]



J D Wardhani, M F Hidayatullah, Asrowi, Wiranto, Nizam



literacy, early childhood, AHP, priority criterias



Children's language development dramatically influences their literacy abilities. Appropriate literacy stimulation is believed to have a positive impact on children's literacy abilities. The purpose of this study is to determine the priority order of the most important criteria of literacy skills in children so that the priority order shows which criteria of stimulation should be optimized. This research is a qualitative descriptive study using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach. The AHP approach is carried out by analyzing the pairwise comparison analysis of each criterion. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a decision-making system to determine priorities from 5 main criteria that play a role in developing children's literacy abilities. The five main principles studied, namely the understanding language, phonological awareness, basic reading skills, necessary writing skills, and reading motivation. By knowing the priority criteria, the development of early childhood literacy stimulation will be more effective. It means that it is necessary to develop a stimulation development model using the priority scale of completion. One of the best is to use AHP.



The discussion that has been presented in this paper concludes that the use of the AHP method is very effective and efficient in helping to determine the priority criteria to be developed. The conclusion of the AHP analysis and weighting above can be concluded that the criteria can understand language (0.306). This is because of the ability to understand language will underlie the ability to read, so the main space for stimulation of children for literacy needs to be through the emphasis on the ability to understand language. The basic ability to write (0.243) and phonological awareness (0.241) can be developed together. Basic reading ability (0.137) and reading interest/motivation (0.072) are the criteria that become the next priority. For achieving optimal results, the development of children's literacy needs to be followed by determining the performance indicators in each criterion. The linkage between the priority indicators for each criterion will be very interesting to follow up so that the increase in stimulation in the development of early childhood literacy can run effectively in the future.

[1] Hoff E 2009 Language Development And Literacy Language Development at an Early Age: Learning Mechanisms and Outcomesfrom Birth to Five Years (Department of Psychology Florida Atlantic University USA)
[2] Bjorklund D F 2005 Children’s Thinking, Cognitive development and Individual deferences (Belmont: Thomson Learning)
[3] Neuman Susan B 2019 First Steps Toward Literacy What Effective Pre-K Instruction Looks Like pp 9-12
[4] Carroll Julia M Holliman Andrew J and Weir Francesca Baroody Alison E 2019 Literacy Interest, Home Literacy Environment And Emergent Literacy Skills In Preschooler/Journal of Research in Reading ISSN 0141-0423 DOI:10.1111/1467-9817.12255 42, Issue 1 pp 150–161
[5] Whitehurst G J & Lonigan C J 2001 Emergent literacy: Development from pre readers to reader Dalam S B Neuman & Dickinson eds Handbook of early literacy research pp 11-28 (New York: Guilford Press)
[6] Janjic Watrich Vera 2009 The Cambridge Handbook of Literacy by Olson, D R & Torrance R eds Books Review Alberta Journal of Educational Research Winter 55 4
[7] Cladwell J S 2008 Comprehension Assessment: A Classroom Guide (New York: The Guilford Press)
[8] Kintsch W & Kintsch E 2005 Comprehension Children’s Reading Comprehension and Assessment Mahwah (NJ: Erlbaum)
[9] Dickinson D & Neuman S B eds 2006 Handbook of early literacy research (New York NY: Guilford Press)
[10] Papen Uta 2018 Hymns, prayers and Bible stories: the role of religious literacy practices in children’s literacy learning Ethnography And Education 13 No 1 pp 119–34 https://doi.org/10.1080/17457823.2016.1277773
[11] Susan Cummings Tara McLaughlin Brian Finch 2018 Examining preadolescent children’s engagement in out-of-school literacy and Exploring opportunities for supporting literacy development Australian Journal of Language and Literacy 41 No 2 pp 103-116
[12] OECD 2014 PISA 2012 Result in Focus Program for International Student
[13] Pusat Data dan Statistik Kemdikbud tahun 2015
[14] Cunningham A E & Stanovich K E 1997 Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading experience and ability 10 years later Developmental Psychology 33 6 pp 934–945
[15] Dickinson D & Caswell L 2007 Building support for language and early literacy in preschool classrooms through in-service professional development: Eects of the Literacy Environment Enrichment Program (LEEP) Early Childhood Research Quarterly 22 pp 243–260.
[16] Levy B A Gong Z & Hessel S 2006 Understanding print: Early reading development and the contribution of home literations of home literacy experiences Journal of Experimental Child Psycology 93 pp 63-93
[17] Ruhaena Lisnawati 2013 Proses Pencapaian Kemampuan Literasi Dasar Anak Prasekolah dan Dukungan Faktor-Faktor dalam Keluarga. Laporan Akhir Penelitian Disertasi Doktor Dibiayai oleh
 Koordinasi Perguruan Tinggi Wilayah VI Kemendikbud RI, sesuai dengan Surat Perjanjian Pelaksanaan Hibah Penelitian Nomor: 008/K6/KL/SP/2013 Tanggal 16 Mei 2013 Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta Desember 2013
[18] Yin Qingli 2013 An Analytical Hierarchy Process Model For The Evaluation Of College Experimental Teaching Quality Journal of Technology and Science Education 3 2 p 59 On-line ISSN 2013-6374 Print ISSN 2014 5349 DL B 2000 2012
[19] Al Qubaisi Amal Badri Masood Mohaidat Jihad Al Dhaheri Hamad Yang Guang Al Rashedi Asma Greer Kenneth 2016 An Analytic Hierarchy Process for School Quality and Inspection Model Development and Application International Journal of Educational Management 30 n3 pp 437-59
[20] Vygotsky L 1978 Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press)
[21] Ysaaca Axelrod 2017 ‘‘Ganchulinas’’ and ‘‘Rainbowli’’ Colors: Young Multilingual Children Play with Language in Head Start Classroom Early Childhood Educ J 45 pp 103–10 http://doi.10.1007/s10643-014-0631-z
[22] Mitra Sugata, Dangwal Ritu 2017 Acquisition of computer literacy skills through self- organizing systems of learning among children in Bhutan and India Prospects 47 pp 275–92 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-017-9409-6
[23] Horzum M B, Tuncay A and Balta Ö.Ç 2008 Computer addiction scale for children. Turkish Psychological Consultancy and Guidance Journal. 3 30 pp 76-88
[24] Kerkez F 2006 An investigation into a play and movement program on physical and motor features in 5–6 aged children stayed orphanages and preschoolers Ph.D Thesis Karadeniz Technical University Institute of Social Sciences Trabzon
[25] Gay M 2018 Wrıtıng learnıng strategy and readıng poetry based for tradıtıonal games crıtıcal thınkıng process. Isllac: Journal of Intensive Studies on Language, Literature, Art, and Culture 2 1 pp 62-70
[26] Toksoy A C 2010 Children’s Games that have a quality of competition Online Thematic Turkology Journal 2 1 pp 205-20
[27] Kaya D 2009 Children’s Games in Sivas International Symposium on Entertainment in Public Culture, Kocaeli
[28] Gu L 2015 Language ability of Young English language learners : Definition, configuration, and implications. Language Testing 2015 32 1 pp 21-38
[29] Purcell-Gates V 2001 Emergent literacy is emerging knowledge of written, not oral, language. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development 92 pp 7-22
[30] McCartney K & Philips D 2008 Blackwell Handbook of Early Childhood Development (Singapore: COS Printers Pte Ltd)
[31] Green S.D Peterson R 2006 Language and literacy promotion in early childhood settings: a survey of center-based practices Early Childhood Research and Practice 8 1 pp 1-18
[32] Weigel D J, Martin S S Bennett KK 2010 Pathway to literacy: connections between family assets and preschool children’s emergent literacy skills Journal of Early Childhood Research 8 1 pp 5-22 doi: 10.1177/1476718X09345518
[33] National Early Literacy Panel 2008 Developing early literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy (Panel Washington DC: Author)
[34] Manolitsis George 2016 Emergent literacy in early childhood education: New issues and educational implications Preschool and Primary Education 4 No 1
[35] Saaty T L 2003 Decision-making with the AHP: Why is the principal eigenvector necessary. European Journal of Operational Research 145 pp 85-91
[36] Lan Tian-Syung Lan, Yu-Hua Chen, Pin-Chang Lo Wen-Chi 2017 A Study of Investigating Adolescents' Eating out Behavior by Using Analytic Hierarchy Process EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education 13 n7 pp 3227-34
[37] Lee Chung-Ping Lou Shi-Jer; Shih Ru-Chu Tseng Kuo-Hung 2011 An AHP-Based Weighted Analysis of Network Knowledge Management Platforms for Elementary School Students. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology TOJET 10 n4 pp 52-59
[38] Morrow L M 2007 Developing Literacy in Preschool (New York: Guilford Press)
[39] Otto B 2008 Literacy development in early childhood Upper Saddle River (New Jersey: Pearson Education)
[40] Anthony J L & Francis D J 2005 Development of phonological awareness Current Direction in Psychological Science Volum 14 Number 5 42 pp 254-59
[41] Lonigan C J et al 2009 The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary General Cognitive Abilities and Print Knowledge Journal of Educational Psychology pp 345-58
[42] Castles A & Coltheart M 2003 Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Science Direct: Cognition 91 2004 pp 77-111
[43] McCartney K & Philips D 2008 Blackwell Handbook of Early Childhood Development (Singapore: COS Printers Pte Ltd) Similarly Levy, Gong, Hessels, Evans, and Jared (2006) found that parents reported involving their children in printing their names and learning or practising letter names and sounds as frequently as reading them storybooks