International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 2, February 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Family Environment And Substance Use Among University Students

[Full Text]



Kidist Tesfaye Gebremariam , Tarika Sandhu



Communication, Conflict, Cohesion, Family environment; Prevalence, Substance use; University students



Family environment represents a significant, but largely ignored area of research in the context of Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of family environment on substance use among Kotebe Metropolitan University Students. Institutional based Cross-sectional explanatory research design, which enables to collect large data in narrowed time, was employed in this study. Data were collected from questionnaires filled by 351 students recruited from five colleges using stratified random sampling technique. Subscales of Family Environment Scale with specific to family cohesion, family communication and family conflict were used to measure participant’s perceived opinions regarding to the climate of their family. Substance use Questionnaire was also used to assess students’ level of substance use. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis was carried out as a method of data analysis. The findings of the study revealed that there was high prevalence of substance use among Kotebe Metropolitan University students: 67.80% (n=238) of the participants reported that they have been engaged in substance use, or tried at least once during the past twelve months. Khat (39.91%), Weed (5.46%), Shisha (6.30 %), Cigarette (13.86 %) and Poly substances (45%) were the type of substances that were consumed by the students. The regression result depicted that, while family cohesion and family communication were inversely and significantly associated with level of substance use, family conflict was not significantly associated with level of substance use. The implication of this finding is that family environment particularly family conflict and communication should be considered while designing intervention programs of substance use.



[1] Ackard DM, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Perry.C. “Parent–child relationship quality and behavioral and emotional health among adolescents”. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2006; 30:59–66
[2] Bahr SJ, Marcos AC, Maughan SL(1995). Family, educational and peer influences on the alcohol use of female and male adolescents. Journal of studies on alcohol; 56(4):457-69
[3] Belew M, Kebede D, Kassaye M, Enquoselassie F. “The magnitude of khat use and its association with health, nutrition and socio-economic status”. Ethiopian Medical Journal;38(1):11-26,2000
[4] Brechting. E. H. “Family environment and substance use in adolescent males Kentucky Master's Theses.2004.
[5] Bronfenbrenner U. “The ecology of human development”. Harvard university press; 1979.
[6] Brook JS, Brook DW, Gordon AS, Whiteman M, Cohen P. “The psychosocial etiology of adolescent drug use: a family interactional approach”. Genetic, social, and general psychology monographs. 1990 May.
[7] Desalegn, B. M, Deribew , A. A, Belayneh, K. G, Gobezie, T. T. “Assessment on the prevalence and contributing factors of social drugs utilization among university of Gondar regular undergraduate students, maraki campus”, International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR),2013
[8] Dillon FR, Rosa MD, Sanchez M, Schwartz SJ.“Preimmigration family cohesion and drug/alcohol abuse among recent Latino immigrants”. The Family Journal.;20(3):256-66,2002.
[9] Elliot, D.S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S.S. “Explaining delinquency and drug use”. Beverly Hills, C.A.: Sage Publications,1985
[10] Gebreslassie, M., Feleke, A., & Melese, T. “Psychoactive substances use and associated factors among Axum University students, Axum Town, North Ethiopia”. BMC public health, 13(1), 693,2013
[11] Hong, J. S., Huang, H., Sabri, B., & Kim, J. S. “Substance abuse among Asian American youth: An ecological review of the literature”. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(5), 669 677,201
[12] Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. “Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use: Bethseda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse”,2009.
[13] Johnstone,L.D . “Reducing adolescent risk: Toward an integrative approach”. Sage publications: new Delhi ,2013
[14] Kliewer W, Murrelle L, Prom E, Ramirez M, Obando P, Sandi L, del Carmen Karenkeris M. “Violence exposure and drug use in Central American youth: Family cohesion and parental monitoring as protective factors”. Journal of Research on Adolescence. Sep;16(3):455-78,2006.
[15] Kopak AM, Chen AC, Haas SA, Gillmore MR. “The importance of family factors to protect against substance use related problems among Mexican heritage and White youth”. Drug and alcohol dependence;124(1-2):34-41,2012.
[16] Latendresse SJ, Rose RJ, Viken RJ, Pulkkinen L, Kaprio J, Dick DM. “Parenting mechanisms in links between parents’ and adolescents’ alcohol use behaviors. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research; 32(2):322-30, 2008.
[17] Laursen B, Coy KC, Collins WA.“Reconsidering changes in parent‐child conflict across adolescence: A meta‐analysis”. Child development; 69(3):817-32, 1998.
[18] Laursen B, Mooney KS.“Relationship network quality: Adolescent adjustment and perceptions of relationships with parents and friends”. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry; 78(1):47-53, 2008
[19] Moos RH, Moos BS. “Manual for the family environment scale”. Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press, 50:33-56,1981.
[20] Nigatu.A.G. “Strategies for the reduction of alcohol and substance abuse among adolescents at two selected universities in Ethiopia”. Diss. 2016
[21] Olson, D. H. “Circumplex Model of marital and family systems: Assessing family functioning”. In Walsh, F. (Ed.), Normal family processes, (2nd ed.) (pp.104-137). New York: Guilford Press,1993
[22] Pergamit, M.R.; Huang, L.; Lane, J. “The Long-Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviours and Family Environment”; ASPE, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Washington, DC, USA retrieved sept 2, 2017 from http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/riskybehav01, 2012.
[23] Sapp, R. L. “Family conflict and family cohesion: their relationship to youths’ behavior problems”. PhD diss., University of Tennessee, 2003.Retrived from.https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/2375.
[24] Shimelis T., Wosen. “Assessment of Causes, Prevalence and Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse among Mekelle University, CSSL 2nd Year Students”American Journal of Applied Psychology. (3)3, 47-56, 2015.
[25] Skinner HA. Guide for using the drug abuse screening test (DAST). Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. 1982.
[26] Steinberg, L. “Age of opportunity: Lessons from the new science of adolescence”. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014
[27] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). The contemporary drug problem: Characteristics, pattern and driving factors. World drug report ,2012
[28] Yip P, Cheung SL, Tsang S, Tse S, Wong OL, Laidler K. “A study on drug abuse among youths and family relationships”. Center for Suicide Research and Prevention. University of Hong Kong, China, 2011