International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 7 - Issue 4, April 2018 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

A Comparison Study Between Xquery And LOQL In Querying LO

[Full Text]



Huda Basloom



Adaptation, adaptivity, adaptability, personalized learning, SCORM, Learning Objects, manage Learning Object, XQuery, XPath, Query XML.



E-learning turns out to be an important aspect for the educational area. An important problem in the e-Learning area is the creation of digital learning materials because it becomes expensive. Learning Object (LO) has been proposed to reuse materials which will reduce the cost. Each LO has metadata. Metadata is used to make LO reusable, sharable, storable and manageable in a repository such as an archive or museum. The most popular metadata standards that provide cataloguing, searching and reuse of resources are the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) and the IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM).An interesting form to retrieve and manipulate collections of LOs is declaratively via a query language. However, current languages used to achieve this are either aimed to a particular implementation of LOs (e.g. XML for instance) or lack the required features to manage and query collections of LOs adequately. Currently possible to use a general purpose XML query language, such as XPath or XQuery. These languages have widely acceptance and great expression power. LOQL (Learning Object Query Language) is a new language which allows a user/application to create, assemble, update and query LOs, independently of any particular implementation. A prototype system has been implemented to test these ideas. The paper presents SCORM concepts. Also, it discusses adaptation possibilities of the SCORM. In addition, it presents different ways to query LO and a comparison study between XQuery and LOQL.



[1] “SCORM 2004 3rd edition Overview”, Advanced Distributed Learning, 2006, http://www.adlnet.org.

[2] Edgard Bentez-Guerrero, Carmen Mezura-Godoy .(2008). "A Declarative Approach for Managing and Querying e-Learning Objects", Mexican International

[3] Saul Carliner, And Patti Shank, E-learning handbook, 1st ed. Pfeiffer. , 2008, pp.13-77

[4] Hartley, Darin, and Elizabeth Rossen. Info-line: Basics of E-Learning (Infoline). Alexandria: 1st ed, 2001, pp.23- 50

[5] Elvira Popescu, Philippe Trigano and Costin Badica, "Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems: A Focus on Learning Styles ", the International Conference on “Computer as a Tool”, IEEE, 2007, Vol.6, No., pp 2473- 2478.

[6] Song Wang, Elke A. Rundensteiner and Murali Mani,"Optimization of Nested XQuery Expressions with Orderby Clauses", 2005, IEEE, Vol., No., pp:1-10

[7] Fawaz Ghali1, Alexandra I. Cristea1, and Craig Stewart2 ."My Online Teacher 2.0" , 2008, Vol., No., pp.1-6

[8] F. Mödritscher, V. García Barros,"Enhancement of SCORM to support adaptive E-Learning within the Scope of the Research Project AdeLE". Proceedings of the ELEARN, 2004, Vol, No., PP.1-7

[9] M. Rey-López, et al.," An extension to the ADL SCORM standard to support adaptivity: The t-learning case-study," Computer Standards & Interfaces, Vol. 10, No. , 2008, PP.1-10.

[10] V. García Barrios, Gütl.C, "AdeLE: A Framework for Adaptive E-Learning through Eye Tracking", Vol.8, No., 2004, PP.1-8.

[11] IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc.." Welcome to IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc.. 27 Jan. 2009 .

[12] W.Kraan, "What is ADL SCORM?", Centre For Educational Technology Interoperability Standards(CETIS),2005, Vol.4, No., pp.1-4

[13] "AICC - Aviation Industry CBT Committee." AICC - Aviation Industry CBT Committee. 27 Jan. 2009 .

[14] C. Limongelli, A. Sterbini and M. Temperini. “Automated course configuration based on automated planning: framework and first experiments”. In Methods and Technologies for Learning ICMTL- International Conference on Methods and Technologies for Learning, G. Chiazzese et. al. Eds. WIT Press, Vol.7, No., 2005, PP.1-7.

[15] Limongelli, C.; Sampietro, G.; Temperini, M.
EUROCON,"Configuration of Personalized e-LearningCourses in Moodle", 2007. The International Conference on "Computer as a Tool" , Issue , 9-12 Sept. 2007 Vol, No. ,pp:2680 – 2686

[16] Peng, Yan ," SCORM-based Courseware Design for the Personalization of E-Learning System", IITA , Vol. 4, No. , 2007, pp. 260-263.

[17] "Querying XML: XQuery, XPath, and SQL/XML in Context"‎, Jim Melton, Stephen Buxton, Morgan Kaufmann, 2006, pp:3- 403

[18] Burgos, Daniel, Tattersall, Colin, Koper, and Rob. "How to represent adaptation in e-learning with IMS learning design." Interactive Learning Environments, Vol.15, No.2, 2007, pp.161-170.