International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us

IJSTR >> Volume 8 - Issue 2, February 2019 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Effect Of Passive Cooling On The Indoor Thermal Quality Of An Institutional Building In Tropical Savannah Climate

[Full Text]



Mansur Yahaya Abdussalam, Prof. Dr. Halil Zafer Alibaba



Building Orientation, Passive Cooling, Institutional Buildings, Thermal Comfort, Indoor Environment, Air Quality, Shading devices.



Passive cooling techniques and their application have become more dependable and are frequently used in regions with hot climate conditions. The foremost techniques adopted are building orientation which helps with spatial organisation of the building based on function, external environment and weather factors and the other is the use of shading devices integrated through design to the building or its immediate environment. The building under study holds a set of lecture rooms, offices and a commercial space is located in a tropical savannah climate region. This papers evaluates the effects of the passive cooling techniques adopted in the building on indoor thermal quality as perceived by the students and other users of the building, considering the high temperature in the region. The research identified how the orientation of the building reduced the surface of the building heated as a result of solar radiation and also how the longer sides of the building have windows facing the direction of the prevailing winds capturing the breeze for cross ventilation which in turn reduces the indoor temperature. Shading devices and trees are used to cover the longer sides of the building to deflect direct solar radiation hence reducing the glare and reflections that may disrupt activities in the lecture rooms. Questionnaires that were distributed and a physical survey of the building site are the main source for the research findings. It is imperative for more research work to be done in areas like this to reduce the energy use in buildings located in hot regions used for cooling. This would also encourage the reduction of green house gases coming from mechanized cooling devices which cost significantly high to run in these regions.



[1] A.A. Adebayo, Sustainable construction in Africa: agenda 21 for sustainable construction in developing countries, Africa Position Paper (2002).

[2] Abdulazeez. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.coursehero.com/file/16530817/Abdulaziz-Alshuaibi-Xerox-case-study/

[3] Adebayo, A.A. (2004). Mubi Synthesis: A Geography Synthesis, First Edition. Paraclete Publishers, Yola.

[4] Alibaba, H. Z. (2018) Heat and Air Flow Behavior of Naturally Ventilated Offices in a Mediterranean Climate .https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327660643_Heat_and_Air_Flow_Behavior_of_Naturally_Ventilated_Offices_in_a_Mediterranean_Climate [accessed Dec 26 2018].

[5] Alibaba, H. Z, Ozdeniz, M. B. Energy performance and thermal comfort of double-skin and single-skin facades in warm climate. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 15, 2016, pp. 635–642.

[6] Alibaba, H. Z, Abdullah, H. K, Towards Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings: The Potential Of Photovoltaic-Integrated Shading Devices To Achieve Autonomous Solar Electricity And Acceptable Thermal Comfort In Naturally-Ventilated Office Spaces.

[7] ASHRAE (2001b) “ASHRAE Standard 62–2001: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality”, (Rajesh Sharma, 2014)

[8] ASHRAE STANDARD, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, American Society of Heating. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, INC.55-2004

[9] Baharuddin, Mohd Nurfaisal & Che-Ani, A & Goh, Nurakmal & Mohd Tahir, Mazlan & Mohd Tawil, Norngainy & Utaberta, Nangkula. (2011). BUILDING USER MANUAL: A VITAL COMPONENT OF THE MALAYSIAN GREEN BUILDING INDEX. (Green Seal, Siemens Industry Inc, September, 2011)

[10] Bekkouche, T. Benouaz, A. Cheknane (2009), “A Modelling Approach of Thermal Insulation Applied to a Saharan Building” , THERMAL SCIENCE: Vol. 13 (2009), No. 4, pp. 233-244.

[11] Branz. (2017, November 13). Retrieved from http://www.level.org.nz/passive-design/ventilation/

[12] Fanger, L. F. (August, 2004). Impact of indoor air temperature and humidity in an office on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and performance. International Journal For Indoor Environment and Health (pp. 74-81). Wiley Online Library.

[13] Green Seal, Siemens Industry Inc. (September, 2011). Green Building Operations & Maintenance Manual.

[14] Hancock, Pete & M Ross, Jennifer & Szalma, James. (2007). A Meta-Analysis of Performance Response Under Thermal Stressors. Human factors. 49. 851-77. 10.1518/001872007X230226.

[15] Ibrahim U. Haruna, I. M. (2014, March 3). Improvement Of Thermal Comfort In Residential Buildings. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH, 3(3), 180 - 183.

[16] Innova. (2018, November 21). Retrieved from https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Mean_radiant_temperature

[17] ISO 7730: (2005), Ergonomics of the thermal environment — Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort.

[18] ISO, En. "7730: 2005:“Ergonomics of the thermal environment–Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria”." International Organization for Standardisation, Geneva (2005).

[19] Kolokotsa, D and Nicolaou, T, (2007), Contribution of shading in improving the energy performance of buildings, 2nd PALENC Conference and 28th AIVC, Island and Greece (Branz, 2017)

[20] Maina, J. J. (2015). Architects and Interdisciplinary research: Reflections from Ethnographic and Measured Fieldwork. In: Samuel Laryea & Roine Leiringer (Eds.), Procs, 6th West Africa Built Environment Research (WABER) Conference, 10-12 August 2015 (pp. 131-144). Accra, Ghana: WABER.


[22] Nikolopoulou, Marialena. (2011). Outdoor thermal comfort. Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition). 3. 1552-68. 10.2741/245.

[23] Nematchoua, Modeste & Tchinda, Réné & A. Orosa, José. (2014). Adaptation and comparative study of thermal comfort in naturally ventilated classrooms and buildings in the wet tropical zones. Energy and Buildings. 85. 321–328. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.09.029.

[24] Ogunsote, O.O. (1991) Introduction to building climatology: A basic course for architecture

[25] students. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello university Press.

[26] Rajesh Sharma, D. (2014, August). Energy efficient facades for Hot and Dry climate in India. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, 1(6), 536 - 542.

[27] Shittu O.J. and Ifesanya, A.O. (2003): “Effects and cost implications of climate on building Design: An overview of Nigerian situation”. International Journal of Environmental Issue, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 164-180.

[28] Saberi Ommid, Saneei Parisa, Javanbakht Amir, Thermal Comfort in Architecture

[29] QUT (2009-15), High-Density Liveability Guide,

[30] Zainal, Zaidah. (2007). Case study as a research method. Jurnal Kemanusiaan. 9.