Evaluation Of Jatropha Curcas Lam. Extracts In The Control Of Some Field Insect Pests Of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp).
Ahuchaogu, C. E., Ojiako, F. O., Kabeh J. D.
Key words: Actellic 25. E. C., Application rates, Cowpea, Field pests, Jatropha curcas, Plant extracts, Seed viability.
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted at the Department of Crop Science and Technology Research farm, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, during 2010 cropping season. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design. The plant extracts were tested at four rates (0.00, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 ml/ plot), and Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic 25 E. C) at the rates of 1.25, 2.50 and 3.75 ml/ plot. The plant extracts were mixed with 300 ml of water, and Actellic 25 E. C was mixed with 1 litre of water. Result of the experiment indicated that J. curcas seed oil together with Actellic 25 .E. C. reduced the number of tested insect pests (Aphids crassivora, Maruca testulalis and Megalurothrips sjostedti). Number of pods produced were increased significantly together with total grain yield/ plot compared with the untreated plots. Result on germination test showed that the treatment materials had no significant effect on the viability of cowpea seeds after three months of storage. Generally, the results indicated that the seed oil of Jatropha curcas gave significant protection of cowpea seeds against field insect pests of cowpea. They also increased pod number and total grain yield more than the root extracts.
. Adebowale, K. O. and Adedire, C. O. (2006) Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of the underutilized Jatropha curcas seed oil. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5 (10): 901-906.
. Agu, C.M. (2008). Effects of organic manure types on root-gall nematode disease and African yam bean yield. Plant Science Research 1(1):17-19.
. Akinkurolere, R.O., Aderile, C.O. and Odeyemi, O.O.(2006) Laboratory evaluation of the toxic properties of forest anchomanes, Anchomanes difformis against pulse beetle Callosobrochus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Insect Sci. 13: 25 29.
. Doharey, R.B; Katiyar, R.N; and Singh, K.M. (1987) Eco-toxicological studies on pulse beetles infesting greengram. IX. Economics of effective edible oils for the protection of greengram, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek against pulse beetles. Bull. Grain Technol.25:152-56
. Dugje, I. Y., L. O. Omoigui, F. Ekelem, A. Y. Kamara, and H. Ajeigbe, 2009. Farmers Guide to Cowpea Production in West Africa. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. pp 11.
. Egbe, O. M., Alibo, S. E and Nwueze, I, 2010. Evaluation of some extra-early- and early-maturing Cowpea Varieties for Intercropping with Maize in Southern Guinea savannah of Nigeria. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 1 (5): 845-858.
. Elhag, E. A. (2000) Deterrent effects of some botanical products on oviposition of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). International Journal of Pest Management, 46 (2): 109- 113.
. Fang, R; Sheng hua, W; Xia guang, Z; Liang, G; Qin, W; Ling, T; Ying, X; and Fang, C. (2005) Identification of curcin by western blot in Calli gernerated from explan of Jatropha curcas L. J. Sich. Uni. (Nat. Sci. Edn.) 42:206–209.
. Fatope, M.O; Mann, A; and Takeda, Y. (1995) Cowpea weevil bioassay: A simple prescreen for plants with grain protectant effects. Int. J. Pest Manage.41:44-86.
. Golob, P. and Webley, D. J. (1980). The use of plants and minerals as traditional protectants of stored products. Report of the Tropical Products Institute, G (138): 32.
. Govindan, K. and Jeyarajan-Nelson, S. (2008) Effect of ten plant powders on mortality, oviposition, adult emergence and seed weight loss on pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleopter a: Bruchidae). Hexapoda, 15 (1): 64-66.
. Haas, W; Strerk, H; and Mittelbach, M. (2002) Novel 12-Deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol diesters isolates from the seed oil of Jatropha curcas. J. Nat. Prod. 65:1434.
. Hossafay, M.E. and Faisal, F.A. (1994) Screening certain products and organic acid for controlling vorrao mites Vorrao jacobsoni (Oudemans). Shashpa, 1 (1):56-62.
. Iceduna, L. C., E. Adipala and M. W. Ogenga-Latigo, 1994. Evaluation of 80 Cowpea Lines for Resistance to Scab, Sphaceloma spp. Afric. Crop Sci. J., 2: 207-214.
. Imam, M. M. (1997). The insects repellant activities of Ocimum suave leaves used as grain protectants in parts of Northern Nigeria. A paper presented at the 20th annual International Conference of Chemical Society of Nigeria.22-26th September, 1997. Arewa house, Kaduna State.
. Jackai, L. E. N and Adalla, C. B, 1997. Pest Management Practice in Cowpea: a review In: Advances in Cowpea Research, eds. Singh, B. B., D. R. Mohan Raj, K. E.
. Jayakumar, M; John William, S. and Ignacimuthu, S. (2005) Evaluation of some plant extracts on the oviposition deterrent and adult emergence activity of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Bruchidae: Coleoptera). Pestology, 29(1): 37-41.
. Lale, N.S.E; (1992) A laboratory study of the comparative toxicity of products from three spices to maize weevil. Post harvest Biol. Technology. 2; 61-64.
. Makkar, H. P. S; Aderibigbe, A. O; and Becker, K. (1998) Comparative evaluation of nontoxic and toxic varieties of Jatropha curcas for chemical composition, digestibility, protein degradability and toxic factors. Food Chem. 62:207–215.
. Makkar, H. P. S., and Becker, K. (2009). Jatropha curcas, a promising crop for the generation of biodiesel and value-added co-products. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 111:773–787.
. Ohazuruike, N. C., Omuh, M. O., and Emeribe, E. O. (2003) The use of seed extracts of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) in the control of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsh.) in stored maize grains (Zea mays L.). Global J. Agric. Sci. 2:86–88.
. Oparaeke, A.M. and Dike, M.C. (1996) Comparism of garlic and lemon grass products in the control of Callosobrochus maculatus (F.) (Coleopter: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea grains. Nigerian J. Entomol.13:73-80.
. Oparaeke, A. M., M. C. Dike and C. I. Amatobi, (2005). Evaluation of Botanical Mixtures for Insect management on Cowpea Plants. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. Vol. 106 (1) pp 41-48.
. Rahman, A. and Talukder, F. A. (2006) Bio efficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Journal of Insect Science, 6(3): 19-25.
. Sadeghi, A; Van Damme, E. J. M; Peumans, W. J; Smagghe, G. (2006) Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Phytochemistry, 67: 2078–2084.
. Saxena, R. and Saxena, B. (2000) Bioactivity of certain plant extracts against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.). Journal of Applied Zoological Research, 11(1): 29-32.
. Singh, S.R. and Allen, D.J. (1972). Cowpea pests and diseases. Manual series N0.2.IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.
. Singh, B. B and B. R. Ntare, 1985. Development of Improved varieties in Africa. In: S. R.
. Srivastava, F.K. (1998) A Test Book of Appled Entomolgy. Kalyani publishers. New Delhi, India.
. Talukder, F. A. and Howse, P. E. (2000). Isolation of secondary plant compounds from Aphanamixis polystachya as feeding deterrents against adults Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Stored Product Research, 107(5): 395-402.
. Tanzubil, P.B. (1986). An overview of cowpea improvement in Northern Ghana. Paper presented at the National Workshop farming systems in savanna zone in Ghana.
. Wahua, T. A. T. (1999). Applied statistics for scientific studies. Africa-link Press, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp: 108-248.