Distribution And Host Range Of Mistletoe (Tapinanthusglobiferus) (A. Rich.) Van Tieghan) Along The Blue Nile Banks In Central Sudan
Mohamed S. Zaroug, Eldur B. Zahran, Abbasher A. Abbasher
Key words: Mistletoes, guava, lime, incidence, severity index, host range
Abstract: Mistletoe of the genus Tapinanthus(Loranthaceae) is a stem hemiparasite causing damage on citruses and guava trees in central Sudan. The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the distribution, incidence, , severity and host range of the parasite. Surveys were conducted in 20102013 in four States along the Blue Nile banks in an area extended about 492 km. Results indicated that the parasite is widely distributed along the Blue Nile banks from Al-Rusayris (12ْ 21' 4" N and 34ْ 22' 14" E) to Hisahisa (14 44' 47" N and 33° 17' 43" E). The highest incidence of the parasite (69%) occurred in Blue Nile State, followed by Sinar state (66.3%) with highest incidence (100%) reported in Singa Province. While Kamlin province (Northern Gezira state) and Khartoum state were seemed to be free from the parasite. The highest percentage of mistletoe infection was found on lime (Citrus aurantifoliaSwingle ) and guava (Psidiumguajava M.) in Western and Eastern Sinar, respectively, with disease severity index range between 74.2%- 90.6% in both localities. The parasitic weed appears to have a wide host range, attacking 22 species belonging to 14 families. The most affected trees were citruses, guava and Ziziphusspina-chriti. In conclusion the results reflects the epidemic situation of mistletoe along the Blue Nile banks, despite the lack of quantitative data concerning losses in fruit production of infected plants. It also revealed that mistletoe could parasitize a variety of host plants, with special preference of potential suitable hosts.
. Asare-Bediako, E., Addo-Quaye, A. A., Tetteh, J. P., Buah, J.N., Van Der Puije, G.C. andAcheampong, R.A. 2013. Prevalence of mistletoe on citrus trees in the Abura-Asebu-Kwamankese District of the Central Region Of Ghana. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research VOL. 2( 7): 122-127.
. Aukema, J. E. 2004. Distribution and dispersal of desert mistletoe is scale- dependent, hierarchically nested. Ecography 27:137-144.
. Aukema, J. E., and Martinez del Rio, C. 2002. Mistletoes as parasites and seed-dispersing birds as disease vectors: Current understanding, challenges, and opportunities. in: Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation. Levey,D., Silva,W. and Galetti,M.(eds.) CAB International Press, Oxfordshire, UK pp. 99- 110.
. Boussim, I. J., Guinko, S., Tuquet, C. and Salle'G. 2004. Mistletoes of the agroforestry parklands of Burkina Faso. Agroforostry systems 60: 39-49.
. DelRio, M,C., SilvaM. A., MedelR. and Hourdequin, M. 1996. Seed dispersal as disease vectors: Bird dissemination of mistletoe seeds to plant hosts. Ecology 77: 912-921.
. Didier, D. S., Laurier, E. O. N., Din, N., Jules, P. R., Victor, T., Henri, F., Georges, S. andAkoa, A. 2009. Artificial infestations of Tapinanthusogowensis(Engler) Danser (Loranthaceae) on three host species in the Logbessou Plateau (Douala, Cameroon) African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (6): 1044-1051.
. Didier, D. S., Ndongo,D., Jules,P. R., DesireT. V., GeorgesF.S. and Akoa A. 2008. Parasitism of host trees by Loranthaceae in the region of Douala (Cameroon). African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (11): 371-378.
. Marshall, J. D. and EhleringerJ. R., 1990. Are xylem-tapping mistletoes partially hetrotrophic? Oecologia, 84: 244-248.
. Mathiasen, R. L, ShawD. C., NickrentD. L. and Watson, D. M.. 2008. Mistletoes pathology, systematics, ecology and management. Plant disease 92: 988-1006.
. Musselman L. J. 1984. Mistletoes in Sudan. The Golden Bough (Royal Botanic Gardin, Kew, England) No. 5:2.
. Norton D. A. and Delange P. J. 1999. Host specificity in parasitic mistletoes (Loranthaceae)in New Zealand. Functional Ecology 1999 13, 552–559.
. Norton, D.A. and Carpenter, M.A. (1998) Mistletoes as parasites; host specificity and speciation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13, 101–105.
. Osman, A.M., Elamin O. M., Elkashif, M. E.2007. A note on mistletoe (Loranthusspp.) incidence on citrus trees in the Gezira State, Sudan. University of Khartoum Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 15 (1): 163-167.
. Overton, J. M. 1994. Dispersal and infection in mistletoe metapopulations. J. Ecol. 82: 711-723.
. Parker, C. and C.R. Riches, 1993. Parasitic Weed of The World: Biology and Control.CBA International, Wallingford, UK. 332 pp.
. Sidahmed, O. A. (1984). Incidence of mistletoe (Loranthusspp.) on citrus and guava trees in the central region of the Sudan. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 143: 417- 420.
. Viccer, J. 1981. South Africa parasitic flowering plants, Juta Co. Ltd pp 177
. Zaroug, M. S., Abbasher, A. A. and Zahran E. B. 2013.Incidence, severity and mechanical control of mistletoe (Tapinanthusglobiferus) (A. Rich.) van Tieghan) parasitizing lime and guava in Wad medaniand Hisahisa provinces, Gezira State, Sudan.Jounal of Science and Technology Vol. 14 JAVS No. 1:44-52.
. Zaroug, M. S., Abbasher, A. A., Zahran. EB andAlagab M. A.2009 Occurrence of mistletoe (Tapinanthusglobefeous) on orchards in central Sudan. In: proceedings of the 10th world congress of parasitic plants. Rubiales D, Westwood J, Uludag A (eds) 8-12 June 2009, Kusadasi, Turkey.