Effects Of Pre Germination Treatments On The Germination And Early Seedling Growth Of Tetrapleura Tetraptera (Schum. & Thonn.)
Omokhua G. E, Aigbe H.I, Ndulue N. B
Index Terms: Tetrapleura tetraptera, pre-germination treatment, seedling growth, germination
Abstract: This study assessed the effect of pre-germination treatments on the germination and early growth of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum. & Thonn.). The seeds were extracted and subjected to the following treatments: Soaking in cold water for 24hrs (T1), dipping in hot water for 1minute (T2), soaking in coconut water for 30 minutes (T3), soaking in coconut milk for 30 minutes (T4), dipping in hydrogen peroxide for 1 minute (T5) and for the control (T6). The results showed that T3 had the highest germination value of 60% while T2 had the least of 25%. There was significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in germination percentage between the treatments at 95% probability level. The seed treated with T3 had the highest mean seedling height of 44.54cm follow by mean seedling height (40.35cm) of both T1 and T6 (the control) while T5 had the lowest mean seedling height of 39.84cm. The ANOVA of the stem-collar diameters shows that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the effects of the different treatment on the seedlings stem-collar diameter. The seedlings subjected to treatment T3 had the highest mean leaf number of 22 while the seedlings subjected to T1 and T6 had same lowest leaf number of 18. It was observed in this study that coconut water (T3) significantly did better in terms of seedling growth and development when used as a pre germination treatment for T. tetraptera seeds. However, the seeds when dipped in hot water for 1 minute (T2) as pre germination treatment did not significantly improve germination and growth of T. tetraptera seeds.
 Adewunmi, C.O., Anderson, H.C., Busk, L. (1991): A potential molluscicide, aridan (Tetrapleura tetraptera), neither induces chromosomal alterations in Chinese Hamster ovary cells, nor mutations in Salmonella typhimurium. Toxicol. Environmental Chemistry. 30:69–74.
 Agbogidi O.M., Bosah B.O. and Eshegbeyi O.F. (2007): Effects of acid pre-treatment on the germination and seedlings growth of African Pear (Dacryodes edulis G.Don) International Journal of Agricultural Research. 2: 952-988.
 Akah, P.A., Nwaibie, O.K. (1993): Antibacterial activity of Tetrapleura tetraptera. Journal of Fitoterapia, 1(5): 42-44.
 Alaba, F., Oyebade A., Jaime A., Teixeira, S. , Ayodele, A and Oluyemisi A. (2006): Efficiency of sulphuric acid, mechanical scarification and Heat treatment on breaking the dormancy of Tetrapleura tetraptera seeds. 53-55.
 Aladesanmi, A.J. (2007): Tetraplura tetraptera: molluscicidal activity and chemical constituents. African Journal of traditional complementary alternative medicines. 4: 23-36.
 Asiyire, B.E., Akinro, L.A., and Amoo, S.O. (2008): Seed germination and in vitro propagation of Piliostigma thonningii-an important medicinal plant. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8(3): 401-404.
 Bouquet, A.A.P (1971): Plantes medicinales du Congo-Brazzaville (lll). Plantes Medicinales et Phytotherapie Tome. 5: 154-154.
 Chauhan, B.S. and Johnson, D.E. (2009): Germination, emergence, and dormancy of Mimosa pudica. Weed Biology and Management. 9: 38–45.
 Dachung, G. and Verinumbe .l. (2006): Effect of water and acid pre-treatment on the germination of Prosopis African seeds. In: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Forestry Association of Nigeria held in Makurding, Benue State. Nigeria. Between 20th and 25th November. p 11-18.
 Durmusali, S. and Khalid N. K. (2007): Seed germination of caper (Capparis ovata) using naphthalene acetic acid and gibberellic acid.
 Enwere, N.J. (1998): Foods of Plant Origin. International Journal of Microbiology. 9 (94):329-334.
 Hilhorst, H.W.M. (1995): A critical update on seed dormancy I; Primary dormancy. Seed Science Research. 5:61–73.
 Hossain, M.A., Arefin M.C., Khan B.M and Rahmari M.A. (2005): Effects of seed treatment in germination and seedling growth attributes of Horitaki (Terminalia chebula Retz.) in the nursery. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science Research (2): 134-141.
 Jimoh, S.O. and Okali, D.U. (1999): Variations in Fruit and Seed Characteristics and Germination of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum & Thonn) Taub. from Different Sources in South-Western Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Forest Resources, 15, 10-21.
 Kanna, C.S., Sudhakara, K., Augustine, A. and Ashokan, P.K. (1996): Seed Dormancy and Pre-Treatments to Enhance Germination in Selected Albizia spp. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 8, 369-380.
 Lemmen, R.H.M. (2008): Tetraplura tetraptera (Schum. & Thonn.) Available on www.database.prota.org. Retrieved on 04/06/2012.
 Li, B. and Foley, M.E. (1997): Genetic and molecular control of seed dormancy. Trends in Plant Science. 2: 384–389.
 Manonmani, V. and Vananagamudi, K. (2003): Studies on Enhancing Seed Germination and Seedling Vigour in Teak (Tectina grandis). Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 15, 51-58.
 Mariat, F. (1957): Influence du lait du coco et du coprah sur le de’velopment de jeunes plantules de Cattleya. Bulletin de La Societe Botanique de France, 98: 260-263.
 Mauney, J.R., Hillman, W.S., Miller, C.O., Clayton, R.A., Strong, F.M. (1952): Bioessay: Purification and properties of a growth factor from coconut. Journal of physiology of Plant Science. 5: 485-497.
 Michael G.L., Joyce P.N., Weston F.M and Clement Z.C (2008): Effect of seed collection times and pre-treatment methods on germination of Terminalia spp. African Journal of Biotechnology. 7(6): 2840-2846.
 Nya P.D., Omokaro D.N. and Nkang A.E. (2000): Comparative studies of seed morphology, moisture content and seed germination of two varieties of Irvingia gabonensis. Global Journal of pure application Science. 6(3) 375-378.
 Offiong, M.O., Udofia, S.I., Olajide, O. and Ufot, I.N. (2010): Comparative Study of Pre-Germination Treatments and Their Effects on the Growth of Tectona grandis (Linn. F) Seedlings. African Research Review, 4, 368-378.
 Ojewole, J.A.O and Adesina S.K. (1983): Cadiovascular and Neuromuscular actions of scopoleptin from fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera. Journal of Plant Science, 49: 99-102.
 Ojewole, J. A. and Adewunmi, C. O. (2004): Anti-inflamatory and hypoglycaemic effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Fabaceae) fruit aqueous extract in Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 95:177-182.
 Olajide .O., Oyedeji, A.A ., Tom, G.S. and Kayode, J. (2014): Seed germination and effects of three water regimes on the growth of Dialium guineense (Wild) seedlings. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 5: 3049- 3059.
 Oni, O. and Bada, S.O. (1991): Effects of Seed Size on Seedlings Vigour in Idigbo (Terminalia ivoreusis). Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 4, 215-229.
 Oni, O. and Gbadamosi, A.F. (1998): Progeny Variation in Seedlings of Dacryodes edulis (G. Din). Journal of Tropical Forest Resources, 14, 38-47.
 Onyekwelu J. C (1990): Germination Studies of Tetrapleura tetraptera. Int. Tree Crops J. 6:59-66.
 Orwa , C., Mutua, A., Kindt, R., Jamnadass, R., Simons, A. (2009): Agro-forest tree database: a tree reference and selection guide. Version 4.0. (http://www.world agroforestry.org/af/treedb/ Retrieved 22nd December, 2014).
 Overbeek J., Conklin, M.E. and Blakeslee, A.F (1992): Factors in coconut water essential for growth and development of very young Centrosema spp. 94, 350-351.
 Sajeevukuermer, b., Sudhakara, k., Ashokan, P.K., and Gopikumar, K., (1995): Seed dormancy and germination in Albizia falcate and Albizia procera. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 7(3): 371-382.
 Santana, V., Bradstock, R.A., Ooi, M., Denham, A.J., Auld, T.D. and Baeza, M. (2010): Effects of soil temperature regimes after fire on seed dormancy and germination in six Australian Fabaceae species. Australian Journal of Botany. 58 (7): 539-545.
 Shakeel .A (2010): Effect of coconut water on callus growth of Cyamopsis tetragonolobust. Pharmacia.