International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 7 - Issue 3, March 2018 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Blended Learning: An Alternative For Undergraduate Anatomy Teaching In Developing Countries

[Full Text]



Dalynes Reyes-Colon, Gilberto Crespo-Perez



e-Learning, TAM, UTAUT, Human Biology, Learning Styles



Anatomy, the study of tissues, organs and systems in the body, is an essential component in the curricula of many health professions. Due to curricular design, complexity of the learning material, and time devoted to teaching, anatomy learning could be compromised. Anatomy instructors and educational institutions must look for ways to complement anatomy teaching in order to better prepare students for what they will find at both, the graduate level and the work environment. In this review, we compared multiple approaches for anatomy teaching, and blended learning appears to give better results for contents comprehension, retention, and academic development.



[1] Barry, D. S., Marzouk, F., Chulak-Oglu, K., Bennett, D., Tierney, P., & O’Keeffe, G. W. (2016). Anatomy education for the YouTube generation. Anatomical Sciences Education, 9(1), 90–96. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1550

[2] Benly, P. (2014). Teaching methodologies on anatomy- a review. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 6(6), 242–243.

[3] Brualdi, A. C. (1996). Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s Theory. Educational Research, 5(10), 5–8.

[4] Crespo-Pérez, G. and Ojeda-Castro, A. (2017). Convergence of Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, and Machine Learning: The Future of Decision Support Systems. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 6(07), 131-136.

[5] DePietro, R., Wiarda, E. and Fleischer, M. (1990), “The context for change: organization, technology and environment”, in Tornatzky, L.G. and Fleischer, M. (Eds), The Process of Technological Innovation, Lexington Books, Lexington, MA, pp. 151-175.

[6] El-Masri, M., & Tarhini, A. (2017). Factors affecting the adoption of e-learning systems in Qatar and USA: Extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2). Educational Technology Research and Development, 1–21. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-016-9508-8

[7] Elizondo-Omaña, R. E., Morales-Gómez, J. A., López-Guzmán, S., León Hernández, I., Patiño Ibarra, R. and Cavazos Vilchez, F. (2004). Traditional Teaching Supported by Computer-Assisted Learning for Macroscopic Anatomy. The Anatomical Record (Part B: New Anat.), 2788, 18–22. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.b.20019

[8] Gardner, J. (2011). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Basic Books, New York: New York.

[9] Jarrral, S. A., & Afzal, M. F. (2016). Preferred instructional strategies for gross anatomy - A student perspective. Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 10(2), 352–354.
[10] Kraszpulska, B., Bomkamp, D., & Brueckner-Collins, J. (2013). Benefits of Traditional Cadaveric Dissection in a Digital World: Medical and Dental Students’ Perspectives. Medical Science Educator, 23(1), 27–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03341800

[11] Liaw, S. S. (2008). Investigating students’ perceived satisfaction, behavioral intention, and effectiveness of e-learning: A case study of the Blackboard system. Computers and Education, 51(2), 864–873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2007.09.005

[12] Lin, S.-C., Persada, S. F., & Nadlifatin, R. (2014). A study of student behavior in accepting the Blackboard Learning System: A Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) approach. Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 18th International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD), 457–462. https://doi.org/10.1109/CSCWD.2014.6846888

[13] Losco, C. D., Grant, W. D., Armson, A., Meyer, A. J., & Walker, B. F. (2017). Effective methods of teaching and learning in anatomy as a basic science: A BEME systematic review: BEME guide no. 44. Medical Teacher, 0(0), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2016.1271944
[14] McGarvey, A., Hickey, A., & Conroy, R. (2015). The anatomy room: A positive learning experience for nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 35(1), 245–250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2014.07.007

[15] Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., & Baki, M. (2013). The Effectiveness of Online and Blended Learning: A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature. Teachers College Record, 115(30303), 1–47.

[16] Morris, N. P., Lambe, J., Ciccone, J., & Swinnerton, B. (2016). Mobile technology: students perceived benefits of apps for learning neuroanatomy. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32(5), 430–442. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12144

[17] Ngan, O. M. Y., Tang, T. L. H., Chan, A. K. Y., Chen, D. M., & Tang, F. M. K. (2017). Blended Learning in Anatomy Teaching for Non-medical Students: An Innovative Approach to the Health Professions Education. Health Professions Education. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.HPE.2017.11.001

[18] Ocak, M. A., & Topal, A. D. (2015). Blended learning in anatomy education: a study investigating medical students' perceptions. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 11(3).

[19] Pereira, J.A., Pleguezuelos, E., Merí, A.,Molina-Ros, A., Molina-Tomás, M. C., & Masdeu, C. (2007). Effectiveness of using blended learning strategies for teaching and learning human anatomy. Medical Education, 41, 189–195. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02672.x

[20] Sawant, S. P., & Rizvi, S. (2015). Teaching Anatomy to Undergraduate Students. International Journal of Anatomy and Research, 3(3), 1212–1215. https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2015.172

[21] Singh, H. (2003). Building Effective Blended Learning Programs Harvey Singh Introduction. Educational Technology, 43(6), 51–54. https://doi.org/10.1021/es2033229

[22] Tam, M. D. B. S., Hart, A. R., Williams, S., Heylings, D., Leinster, S. (2017). Is learning anatomy facilitated by computer-aided learning? A review of the literature. Medical Teacher, 31:9, e393-e396. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590802650092

[23] Tanasi, C. M., Tanase, V. I., & Harsovescu, T. (2014). Modern Methods Used in the Study of Human Anatomy. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 127, 676–680. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.334

[24] Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425–478.

[25] Venkatesh, V., Thong, J., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: Extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS Quarterly, 36(1), 157–178.