International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 3, March 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Prevalence Of Protienuria In A Symptomatic School Children From September 2018 To March 2019

[Full Text]



Omaima A.E.Mohammed, Suheir A. M. Sayed , Alwyia A. A GENDEL, El-Tigani M.A. Ali



Prevalence , Asymptomatic proteinuria , Schools , BahriWasat and Khartoum north administrative unit,



Background:Asymptomatic proteinuria is a common finding in primary care practice. Proteinuria in asymptomatic children especially if persistent and significant may be an early marker of chronic kidney disease, however global controversy exists regarding the cost effectiveness of screening program in detection and prevention of chronic kidney disease in children. Objective:To study the prevalence of proteinuria in asymptomatic school children in BahriWasat administrative unit in Khartoum North Locality, Khartoum State, Sudan. Methods This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, community-based study , that was conducted in schools located in BahriWasat administrative unit, in Khartoum north locality within the period from September 2018 –March 2019 and covered 430 schoolchildren selected by multiple stage stratified sampling. Clean midstream urine was collected in a clean plastic container from participants; urine sample was examined by dipstick method for proteinuria, and. Data collected, prepared, entered, and analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Results This study covered 430 study participants. Concerning the results of urinary screening by dipstick, our study realized that the prevalence of proteinuria was 32(7.4%). Only 2(6.3%) of participants (who were positive for protein urea by dipstick), were significantly positive for early morning urine albumin who represent only (0.5%) of all study participants. Half of them were 50th – 90th BP centile, the mean of GFR 84.5 ml /mim/1.73 m2, Urea 24.5 mg, Creatinine 0.8 mg, and Urine albumin creatinine ratio found to be 31.0 mg of albumin /g of creatinine. The analysis found that there was no significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria according to the gender (the prevalence was (7.5%) among males compared with (7.4%) among females with p-value = 0.97). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria according to the age (the prevalence was (7.5%) among participants who age 5-10 years compared with (7.4%) among participants who age 11 - 15 with p-value = 0.97). Conclusion and recommendation: this study showed that the prevalence of proteinuria is 7.4 %, which similar to most study worldwide and we recommended no more screening for proteinuria by dipstick because it is not cost-effective and less sensitive and less specific in early detection of CKD.



[1] Leung AK, Wong AH, Barg SS. Proteinuria in Children: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis. Am Fam Physician. 2017 Feb 15;95(4):248-254
[2] Utsch B, Klaus G. Urinalysis in children and adolescents. DtschArztebl Int. 2014;111(37):617–626.
[3] Sharaf El Din UA, Salem MM, Abdulazim DO. Stop chronic kidney disease progression: Time is approaching. World J Nephrol. 2016;5(3):258–273.
[4] Filice CE, Green JC, Rosenthal MS, Ross JS. Pediatric screening urinalysis: a difference-in-differences analysis of how a 2007 change in guidelines impacted use. BMC Pediatr. 2014;14:260.
[5] Chang-Chien C, Chuang GT, Tsai IJ, Chiang BL, Yang YH. A large retrospective review of persistent proteinuria in children. J Formos Med Assoc. 2018 Aug;117(8):711-719.
[6] Alexander K.C,Sttefani S.N .protienuria in children : Evaluation and Differntial Diagnosis Feb 2017.
[7] Elsharif Ahmed Bazieetal. Screening Of Proteinuria and Hematuria in Asymptomatic Children in Basic School-Kosti City-In White Nile (Kosti City. Journal of Medical and Biological Science Research. November, 2015.. 1 (9), 118-123
[8] Bezinque A, Noyes SL, Kirmiz S, Parker J, Dey S, Kahnoski RJ, Lane BR. Prevalence of Proteinuria and Other Abnormalities in Urinalysis Performed in the Urology Clinic. Urology. 2017 May;103:34-38.
[9] Becherucci F, Roperto RM, Materassi M, Romagnani P. Chronic kidney disease in children. Clin Kidney J. 2016;9(4):583–591.
[10] Shibata M, Sato KK, Uehara S, et al. Blood pressure components and the risk for proteinuria in Japanese men: The Kansai Healthcare Study. J Epidemiol. 2017;27(11):505–510.
[11] Leung AK, Wong AH, Barg SS. Proteinuria in Children: Evaluation and
[12] Differential Diagnosis. Am Fam Physician. 2017 Feb 15;95(4):248-254
[13] Fraser SD, Blakeman T. Chronic kidney disease: identification and management in primary care. PragmatObs Res. 2016;7:21–32.
[14] Benjamin O, Lappin SL. End-Stage Renal Disease. [Updated 2018 Dec 2]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499861/
[15] Prasher PK, Varma PP. CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE - PITFALLS IN DIAGNOSIS. Med J Armed Forces India. 2017;53(4):295–297.
[16] Fuhrman DY, Schneider MF, Dell KM, et al. Albuminuria, Proteinuria, and Renal Disease Progression in Children with CKD. Clin J Am SocNephrol. 2017;12(6):912–920.
[17] Ali M El-Shafie, Fathia M. El-Nemr, Mohamed H. Bahbah, Mohamed Shokry and Ahmed attia. The Role of Urine Screening (In School Children of Menoufiya Governorate) In Early Detection of Renal Disorders. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):143-150
[18] Mohsen Jaru ,AlirezaMerrikhi and Zahra Ghaffarzadeh. The first report on the frequency of asymptomatic proteinuria in Iranian school children feb 2018.
[19] RamanujSharmetal. Prevalence of Haematuria and Proteinuria in Children. International Journal of Medical and Health Research. November 2018; (4), 11, 124-126
[20] Gul, Ali ,Ozer, Samet , Yilmaz, Resul , Sonmezgoz, Ergun , Kasap, Tuba , Takci, Sahin. Prevalence of Proteinuria in School-Aged Turkish Children, and Its Association with Obesity and Hypertension. The Journal of Pediatric Research 2017. 4. 195-199