New Perspectives In Digitial Literacy Readiness
Keywords: Digital literacy, Digital Divide, Digital Inclusion, ICT, Telecommunications Policy, Social Policy, Social Inclusion, Digital Rights, Digital Equality.
Abstract: The evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has generated associated terms such as e-readiness, e-government, digital literacy, and digital divide. These terms are inter-related in one way or the other. Numerous services have also been created for the sake of convenience and easy access to information submission and retrieval. Digital literacy has now become an integral part of our lives and it is deeply embedded in our daily lifestyle. By the end of 2013 it was expected that broadband subscriptions would rise beyond 2 billion globally. The governments and corporates have demonstrated greater interest in taking advantage of this unique and state of the art technology to tap the potential both politically and economically. The governments are busy formulating strategies and policies and heavily investing in building ICT infrastructures in order to electronically reach out to the citizens to the last mile for better and effective governance. This will also fulfill its objective to address socio- economic issues such as education, governance, citizenship participation, employment, health, food security amongst others. The corporates on the other hand are concentrating on formulating sales and marketing strategies to achieve competitive advantage by offering their products and services to the last mile. ICT has opened up windows of opportunities for almost every sector. Efforts are on to bridge the digital and technological divide within and between countries. In this paper, a brief focus is on the digital literacy levels in developed, developing, and least developed nations.
. National Telecommunications and Information Administration. (1999). Falling through the Net: Defining the digital divide. Retrieved 02 10, 2014, from http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/fttn99/contents.html
. Alexander, R. (2009). Children, their world, their education. Final report and recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review. London: Routledge.
. Aviram, A., & Eshet, A.-Y. (2006). “Towards a Theory of Digital Literacy:Three Scenarios for the Next Steps”. European Journal: Open, Distance E-Learning.
. Bawden, D. (2001). Information and digital literacies: A review of concepts. Journal of Documentation.
. Belshaw, D. A. (2012). What is 'digital literacy'? A Pragmatic investigation. Durham University.
. Blanchard, J., & Moore, T. (2010). The Digital World of Young Children: Impact on Emergent Literacy. Arizona State University, College of Teacher Education and Leadership. Pearson Foundation.
. Blois, Z. (2013, October 8). 5 Ways to Increase Digital Literacy via Blended Learning Models. Retrieved February 11, 2014, from Wowzers: http://blog.wowzers.com/5-ways-to-increase-digital-literacy-via-blended-learning-models
. Bobst, T. Digital Literacy and Workplace Readiness Preparing Your Students with 21st Century Skills. BAM Conference. Cengage Learning.
. Bransford, J., Brown, A., & Cockings (Eds.), R. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
. Brown, C. L. (2002). G-8 Collaborative Initiatives and the Digital Divide: Readiness for e-Government. Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
. Burkhardt, G., Mousour, M., Valdez, G., Dawson, M., Cheryl, L., Coughlin, E., et al. (2003). enGauge 21st Century Skills:Literacy in Digital Age. Retrieved February 09, 2014, from www.ncrel.org/engauge
. Byron, R. (2008). Byron Review on the impact of new technologies on children. London: Department of children, schools and families.
. Calvert, S., Rideout, V., Woodard, J., Barr, R., & Strouse, G. (2005). Age, ethnicity and socioeconomic patterns in early computer use: A national survey. American Behavioral Scientist , 5 (48), 590-607.
. Cavallo, D. (2000). Emergent design and learning environments: Building on indigenous knowledge. IBM Systems Journal , 39 (3,4), , 768-779.
. Chinien, C., & Boutin, F. (2011). Defining Essential Digital Skills in the Canadian Workplace:. Montreal: WDM Consultants.
. Conclusion: Imagining the Future. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2014, from The Knight Commission: http://www.knightcomm.org/digital-and-media-literacy/conclusion-imagining-the-future/
. Critcher, C. (2008). Making waves: Historical aspects of public debates about children and mass media.In K. Drotner & S. Livingston (Eds.). London: Sage.
. Deborah, S. (2012, November 24). Digital Literacy: The Need to Prepare Students for the 21st Century Workplace. Retrieved February 16, 2014, from ETEC540: Text, Technologies – Community Weblog: http://blogs.ubc.ca/etec540sept12/2012/11/24/digital-literacy-the-need-to-prepare-students-for-the-21st-century-workplace/
. District Administration Custom Publishing Group. (2012, November). Digital Literacy: Preparing Students for a Global Tech-Based Economy. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from District Adminstrartion Leadership Institute: http://www.districtadministration.com/article/digital-literacy-preparing-students-global-tech-based-economy
. Dobson, T., & Willinsky, J. (2009). DIGITAL LITERACY.
. Evans, M. (2009, April). Digital Literacy;Transforming Lives Through Microsoft Digital Literacy. Retrieved 01 2014, February, from Microsoft: http://www.microsoft.com/About/CorporateCitizenship/Citizenship/giving/programs/UP/digitalliteracy/CaseStudies.mspx
. Ezziane, E. (2007). “Information Technology Literacy: Implications on Teaching and Learning”. Journal of Education Technology and Society , 10 (3), 175-191.
. Frau-Meig, D., & Torrent, J. (2009). Mapping Media Education Policies in the World: Visions, Programmes and Challenges. New York: The United Nations-Alliance of Civilizations in co-operation with Grupo Comunicar.
. Ghosh, S. B., & Das, A. K. (2006). Information Literacy Initiatives in India with Special Reference to Emerging Knowledge Economy. International Conference on Information Literacy (ICIL 2006). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Faculty of Information Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA with the Librarians Association of Malaysia.
. Glaubke, C. (2009). The effects of interactive media and preschoolers’ learning: A review of the research and recommendations for the future. In Children Now. Oakland, CA.
. Gnanasambandam, C., Madgavkar, A., Kaka, N., Manyika, J., Chui, M., Bughin, J., et al. (2012). Online and upcoming:The Internet’s impact on India. McKinsey & Company, Inc.
. Gonzalez, k. (2002). Defining, assessing information and communication technologies (ICT) literacy. Retrieved February 08, 2014, from http://www.ets.org/news/02050701.html
. Hart, D. (2001). Bridging the digital divide, Hemispheres: When can you start? Building better information technology skills and careers. Arlington, VA, USA: Information Technology Association of America.
. Hasebrink, U., Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., & Olafsson, K. (2009). Comparing children’s online opportunities and risks across Europe: Cross-national comparisons for EU kids online. London: EU Kids Online.
. Information and Communications Technology Council. (2010). Digital literacy: Canada’s productivity opportunity.
. International ICT Literacy Panel. (2007). Digital Transformation: A Framework for ICT Literacy. Educational Testing Service (ETS).
. James, M., & Pollard, A. (2010). Learning and teaching in primary schools: Insights from TLRP in R. Alexander, C. Doddington, J. Gray, L. Hargreaves, and R. Kershner (Eds.), Cambridge Primary Review Research Surveys,. London: Routledge.
. Johnson, D. W., Bartholomew, K. W., & Miller, D. (2007). “Improving ComputerLiteracy of Business Management Majors: A Case Study”. Journal of Information Technology & Education , 5.
. K, D., & Livingstone, S. (. (2008). The international handbook of children, media and culture. London: Sage.
. Kline, S. (2004). Learners, spectators, or gamers? An investigation of the impact of digital media in the media-saturated household. In J. Goldstein, D. Buckingham, D., & G. Brougere (Eds.). In Toys and Games Media (pp. 131-156). Mahwah, NJ, USA.
. Learning.com. (2012, November 27). Learning.com Addresses PARCC and Smarter Balanced with Expanded EasyTech Digital Literacy Curriculum . Retrieved February 13, 2014, from Learning.com: http://jeffreyeducator.wordpress.com/2013/12/31/digital-literacy-essential-for-college-and-career-readiness/
. Linebarger, D., & Piotrowski, J. (2009). TV as storyteller: How exposure to television narratives impacts at-risk preschoolers’ story knowledge and narrative skills. British Journal of Developmental Psychology , 27, 47-69.
. Microsoft. (2014). Digital Literacy: Transforming Lives Through Microsoft Digital Literacy;Microsoft Digital Literacy Inspires High School Girls at DigiGirlz Dubai. Retrieved January 31, 2014, from Miscrosoft: http://www.microsoft.com/About/CorporateCitizenship/Citizenship/giving/programs/UP/digitalliteracy/CaseStudies.mspx
. Microsoft. (2014). Digital Literacy:Digital Literacy and Workplace Readiness Preparing Your Students . Retrieved from Microsoft: http://www.microsoft.com/About/CorporateCitizenship/Citizenship/giving/programs/UP/digitalliteracy/CaseStudies.mspx
. Microsoft. (2014). Digital Literacy:Transforming Lives Through Microsoft Digital Literacy:Integrating Microsoft Digital Literacy Enables Law Enforcement Education. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from Microsoft: http://www.microsoft.com/About/CorporateCitizenship/Citizenship/giving/programs/UP/digitalliteracy/CaseStudies.mspx
. Microsoft. (2014). Digital Literacy:Transforming Lives Through Microsoft Digital Literacy:Women Build Confidence and Career Readiness Through ICT Skills. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from Microsoft: http://www.microsoft.com/About/CorporateCitizenship/Citizenship/giving/programs/UP/digitalliteracy/CaseStudies.mspx
. Miller, J. (2013). Digital Literacy: Essential for College and Career Readiness. Retrieved February 13, 2014, from Jeffrey Educator: http://jeffreyeducator.wordpress.com/2013/12/31/digital-literacy-essential-for-college-and-career-readiness/
. Mishel, L., Bernstein, J., & Boushey, H. (2003). The state of working America, 2002-03. Ithaca, NY: Industrial and Labor Relations Press.
. Morino Institute. (2001). From access to outcomes: Raising the aspirations for technology initiatives in low income communities. Reston, VA, USA.
. Ng, W. (2012). Can we teach digital natives digital literacy? In Computers & Education (pp. 59, 1065-1078).
. Norris, C., Sulliva, T., Poirot, J., & Soloway, E. (2003). No access, no use, no impact: Snapshot surveys of educational technology in K-12. Journal of Research in Technology in Education , 36, 15-28.
. Park, J., & Narayan, A. (n.d.). Empowering Citizens Through Digital Literacy. Bangkok, Thailand: UNESCO & ITU.
. Pearson, G., & Young, A. T. (2002). Technically speaking: Why all Americans need to know more about technology. Washington DC: National Academies Press.
. Pew Research Center. (2009). Home broadband adoption. Washington DC.
. Pociask, S. (2002). Putting broadband on high speed: New public policies to encourage rapid deployment. Washington, DC:. Retrieved 02 2014, February, from Epinet: http://www.epinet.org/studies/broadband_pociask.pdf
. Prensky, M. (2006). Don’t bother me mom—I’m learning! St. Paul,. MN: Paragon House.
. Resnick, M. (2002). Rethinking learning in the digital age. In G. Kirkman (Ed.) The Global Information Technology Report: Readiness for the Networked World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
. Rideout, V., Vanderwater, E., & Wartella, E. (2003). Zero to six: Electronic media in the lives of infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
. Roberts, D., & Foehr, U. (2008). Trends in media use. Children and Electronic Media , 18 (1), 11-37.
. Rushkoff, D. (1999). Playing the future: What we can learn from digital kids aka children of chaos. New York: Riverhead Books.
. Sahay, S. (2004). “Beyond utopian and nostalgic views of information technology and education: Implications for research and practice”. Journal of Association of Information Systems , 5 (7), 282-313.
. Schuler, C. (2009). Pockets of potential: Using mobile technologies to promote children’s learning. New York, USA: Joan Ganz Cooney Center.
. Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCAN). (1991, June). What work requires of schools.Washington, DC: U.S.Department of Labor. Retrieved January 31, 2014, from U.S. Department of Labor: http://wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/whatwork/whatwork.html
. Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills. (1992). Learning a living: A blueprint for high performance.Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Institute for Policy Studies. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from Department of Labor: http://wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/lal/LAL.HTM
. Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing up digital: The rise of the Net generation. New York: McGraw-Hill.
. U.S. Department of Labor. (1999). Futurework: Trends and challenges for work in the 21st century. Retrieved January 31, 2014, from Department of Labor: http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/history/herman/reports/futurework/report.htm
. UN Chronicle. (2011, October). The Role of e-Governance in Bridging the Digital Divide. Retrieved February 09, 2014, from UN Chronicle: http://unchronicle.un.org/article/role-e-governance-bridging-digital-divide/UNICEF. (2009).
. United Stations. (2008). e-Government survey 2008. Department of Economic and Social Affairs., New York.
. Vanderwater, E., & Lee, S. (2009). Measuring children’s media use in the digital age: Issues and challenges. In American Behavioral Scientist (pp. 52, 1152-1176).