Carbon Stock Estimation In Secondary Forest And Gallery Forest Of Congo Using Allometric Equations
Romeo Ekoungoulou, Xiaodong Liu, Suspense Averti Ifo, Jean Joel Loumeto, Fousseni Folega
Keywords: Carbon stock, Secondary forest, Gallery forest, Above-ground biomass, Inkou forest island, Below-ground biomass, Blue lake forest.
Abstract: The research was aimed to estimate the carbon stocks of above-and below-ground biomass in the secondary and gallery forest of Lesio-louna (Republic of Congo). The methodology of Allometric equations was used to measure the carbon stock of Lesio-louna natural forest. We were based precisely on the model II which is also called non-destructive method or indirect method of measuring carbon stock. We used parameters such as the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) and wood density. The research was done with 6 circular plots each 1256m2, with a distance of 100m between each plot, depending on the topography of the site of installation of these plots. The six studied plots were divided into two sites, which are: Inkou Forest Island (Secondary forest) and Blue Lake Forest (Gallery forest). Thus, in the 6 plots with 77 trees, there were three plots in Inkou Forest Island site and three plots in Blue Lake Forest site. The results of this study showed that the average carbon stock in 6 plots of the study was 130.9908333 t C /ha for above-ground biomass (AGB) and 30.78283179 t C /ha for below-ground biomass (BGB). In this forest ecosystem, the average carbon stock of AGB was more important in secondary forest compared to gallery forest with respectively 135.9763333 t C /ha against 126.0053 t C /ha. Also, the average carbon stock of BGB was higher in secondary forest (31.9544076 t C /ha) compared to gallery forest (29.61126 t C /ha). This study shows that the species density is higher in the secondary forest (3 plots with 44 trees) compared to the gallery forest (3 plots with 33 trees). This research indicates that, the forests component in the study area could appoint as an important carbon reservoir, and can also play a key role in climate change mitigation.
 ANAC, ‘’Situation Météorologique Nationale’’, Rapport annuel de l’agence nationale de l’aviation civile. Agence Nationale de l’Aviation Civile (ANAC), Unpubliched, Pp. 64, Republic of Congo, 2010.
 Anonymous, ‘’Annual report of Lesio-louna Project (Rapport annuel du projet Lesio-louna)’’. Ministry of sustainable devlopment, Forest economy and Environment (Ministère de Développement Durable, de l’Economie Forestière et de l’Environnement), The Aspinall foundation, pp.55, Congo, Brazzaville, 2011.’
 V. B. Barnes, et al., Forest ecology. Fourth edition, pp. 774, USA, 1998.
 V. M. Breugel et al., Estimating carbon stock in secondary forests: Decisions and uncertainties associated with allometric biomass models, Elsevier, Forest Ecology and Management, pp. 1648–1657, 2011.
 S. Brown, A. Gillespie, and A. E. Lugo, Biomass estimation methods for tropical forest with applications to forest inventory data. Forest Science Vol. 35, pp. 881–902, 1989.
 S. Brown, Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests: a primer UN FAO Forestry Paper 134, http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4095E/W4095E00.htm. Pp.55, 1997.
 S. Brown et al., Application of Multispectral 3-Dimensional Aerial Digital Imagery for Estimating Carbon Stocks in a Tropical Pine Savanna. Report to the Nature Conservancy Conservation Partnership Agreement, pp. 22, 2004.
 S. Brown et al., ‘’Impact of selective logging on the carbon stocks of tropical forests’’: Republic of Congo as a case study. Winrock International. Deliverable 6 to USAID, Cooperative Agreement No. EEM A-00-03-00006-00, pp. 21, 2005.
 S. Brown, Creating a virtual tropical forest from three-dimensional aerial imagery to estimate carbon stocks, Ecological Applications, pp.13, 2005.
 K. P. Burnham and D.R. Anderson, ‘’Model selection and inference’’, A practical information–theoretic approach, Second edition, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany. 2002.
 S. Cai, X. Kang, L. Zhang, Allometric models for aboveground biomass of ten tree species in northeast China, Ann. For. Res. 56(1): 105-122, 2013.
 J.Q. Chambers et al. Tree damage, allometric relationships, and above-ground net primary production in central Amazon forest, Forest Ecology Management, Vol. 152, pp. 73–84, 2001.
 J. Chave, B. Riera, and M.A. Dubois, Estimation of biomass in a neotropical forest of French Guiana: spatial and temporal variability. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17:79–96, 2001.
 J. Chave et al., Error propagation and scaling for tropical forest biomass estimates. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B 359, 409–420, 2004.
 J. Chave et al., Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests, Oecologia 145: 87–99, 2005.
 CIFOR, Forests and climate change mitigation. Center for International Forestry Research. Key research finding, pp.2, 2012.
 N. A. Djomo et al., Allometric equations for biomass estimations in Cameroon and pan moist tropical equations including biomass data from Africa, Forest Ecology and Management, 260:1873–1885, 2010.
 E. Alvarez et al., Tree above-ground biomass allometries for carbon stocks estimation in the natural forests of Colombia, Forest Ecology and Management, 267: 297–308, 2012.
 W.R. Gorte, Carbon Sequestration in Forests, Congressional Research Service, Natural Resources Policy, Report for Congress, 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL31432, 2009.
 FAO, State of the World’s Forests, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (UNFAO), pp.60, Italy- Rome, 2008.
 FAO, State of the World’s Forests (Situation des forets du monde), Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’Alimentation et l’Agriculture, Rome, Pp. 177, 2011.
 F. Folega et al., Ecological and numerical analysis of plant communities of the most conserved protected area in North-Togo, International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 2(10): 359-369, 2010.
 F. Folega, Wooded vegetation of protected areas in Northern Togo, Case of Barkoissi, Galangashi and Oti-Keran: Ecological and Structure Analysis of Plant Communities, Forestry Studies in China .2011, 13(1):23-35, 2011.
 IPCC, Third Assessment Report of IPCC, Climate Change: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA, Cambridge University Press, pp.881, 2001.
 IPCC, Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Summary for policymakers and technical summary. WMO. UNEP, Pp. 246, 2011.
 A. Hall, Forests and climate change. The Social dimensions of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) in Latin America, pp.213, 2012.
 J. R.Holdaway et al., Propagating Uncertainty in Plot-based Estimates of Forest Carbon Stock and Carbon Stock Change, Uncertainty in Forest Carbon Estimates, Ecosystems. Pp. 14, 2014.
 K. Lorenz, and R. Lal, ‘’Carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems’’, Springer, pp. 241-260, USA, 2009.
 K. Mokany, R.J. Raison, and A.S. Prokushkin, Critical analysis of root: shoot ratios in terrestrial biomes. Global Change Biology 12: 84-96, 2006
 L. Moundzeo et al., Carbon sequestration in sugarcane plantation in Niari valley in Congo. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 4 (4): 411-418, 2011.
 J. Nguema and Pavageau, Adaptation et Atténuation en Guinée Equatoriale. Acteurs et processus politiques, Document de Travail 98, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), pp. 62, Bogor, Indonesia ,2012.
 H. Ogawa et al., Comparative ecological studies on three main types of forest vegetation in Thailand II Plant biomass, Nat Life Southeast Asia 4:49–80, 1965.
 T.S. Pearson et al., Application of Multispectral 3-Dimensional Aerial Digital Imagery for Estimating Carbon Stocks in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest, Winrock International, 2-17, 2005.
 T.S. Pearson et al., Use of aerial digital imagery to measure the impact of selective logging on carbon stocks of tropical forests in the Republic of Congo. Delivelable 9 to USAID, Cooperative Agreement No. EEM- A- 00-03-00006-00, pp 5-21, 2005.
 T.S. Pearson and S.Brown, Guide for measuring and monitoring carbon in forests and grasslands (Guide de mesure et de suivi du carbone dans les forêts et prairies herbeuses), Winrock International, pp.35, 2005.
 A. J. Richard and W.W. Dean Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education Beijing Office, Tsinghua university press, pp. 3-755, China, 2007.