Ammonia Production In Poultry Houses And Its Effect On The Growth Of Gallus Gallus Domestica (Broiler Chickens): A Case Study Of A Small Scale Poultry House In Riverside, Kitwe, Zambia
Patrick Sipalo Maliselo, Glasswell K. Nkonde
Index Terms: Adsorption, Ammonia, Bamboo charcoal, Emission, Excreta, Litter, Moisture,
Abstract: Chickens deaminate excess amino acids and excrete the derived nitrogen in the urine mainly as uric acid, which is readily converted to ammonia. This gas has adverse effects on the health of chickens and air quality. Production of ammonia and its effect on the growth of chickens was monitored at a poultry house of House Number 5743, Mukuba Road in Riverside, Kitwe from 21st August, 2013 to 6th June, 2014. Two batches of fifty day old hybrid broiler chicks were bred in house A and B (5 m x 7 m) under the same management system in three phases. House A chicks were fed on Novatek feed only, while those in house B were fed on Novatek feed blended with 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.9% (w/w) bamboo charcoal of ≤600Ám particle size. Weekly mass recording by the use of a weighing scale provided a measure of growth rate while analysis of the excreta using Kjeldahl method at the Copperbelt University and Nkana Water and Sewerage Company laboratories in Kitwe provided a means of monitoring the amount of ammonia generated. Chickens in house B showed a slightly faster growth rate from 28 to 42 days than those in house A. The f-test results from the study showed that there was a significant effect of ammonia concentration on chicken growth rate (P<0.05). The results obtained from excreta-litter mixture analysis showed a significant adsorption of ammonia by bamboo charcoal (P<0.05). The study further indicated a direct dependency of ammonia concentration in excreta on chicken age, moisture content and pH.
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