An Evaluation Of The Effects Of Petroleum Exploration And Production Activities On The Social Environment In Ogoni Land, Nigeria
Ibama Brown, Eyenghe Tari
Keywords: Environment, Mitigation and perceived Mitigation, Petroleum Exploration and Production, and Socio-economic Impact,
ABSTRACT: The exploration and production of petroleum and its subsequent transportation and distribution in the Niger Delta have led to pollution of aquatic habitats with serious threats to associated flora and fauna. Consequently, most studies have concentrated on the effects of crude oil and its products on aquatic flora and fauna, with little emphasis on the socio-economic environment. Evaluation of the effects of petroleum exploration and production activities on the social environment in Ogoni land of Rivers State is the main focus of this study. Therefore, in order to fill this gap, there is the need to investigate the effects of crude oil spills on the socio-economic environment, including the livelihoods of people. This is done by; examining the impact of intensive resource exploitation on the social environment of the oil producing communities in Ogoni land which has further degraded the environment to the peril of the inhabitants. Also to examine how the Oil and Gas Multinational Companies have contributed to the management of the environment in these selected communities. The target population comprised 478 respondents across 4 major Oil fields of Ogoni land which is a 5% probability sample. The study employed two sampling techniques: Multi-stage Sampling technique and simple random sampling technique. The study revealed that the hazards and effects associated with crude oil spill are enormous and conspicuous. It was also found out that, there is no proper mechanism for the dissemination of information about the environmental hazards associated with spills on the environment. The study proffered recommendations appropriate workable Environmental Management Programme (EMP) which will help mitigate and enhance the environmental quality of the Ogoni land through baseline studies of the environment and carrying out full Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) to understand the ecology of coastal environment for sustainable development to be achieved.
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