International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
(Re-evaluation in-progress)

IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 4, April 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Levels Of Perfectionism And Sports Burnout Among Student-Athletes

[Full Text]



Roderick B. Valdez, MAPsych; Ma. Victoria T. Juan, PhD



Perfectionism, psychological skills training program, sports burnout, student-athletes,



This study explored the levels of perfectionism and sports burnout among student-athletes at Isabela State University, Echague, Philippines. A total of one hundred seventy (178) student-athletes from the university were drawn using proportional allocation. This study made use of standardized survey questionnaires, the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ by Raedeke, 1999) and Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2 (SMPS-2 by Gotwals et al., 2003), data gathered were analyzed utilizing weighted mean and Chi-Square to answer the objectives of the study. Results showed that student-athletes were highly perfectionist with high level of sports burnout. This research concluded that sports burnout is a result of a high level of perfectionism. With the foregoing findings, it is recommended that a coach and sports director must work hand-in-hand with a sports psychologist in conceptualizing a Psychological Skills Training Program establishing adaptive and mal-adaptive perfectionism to address the high level of sports-burnout.



[1] Sylwester,M., & Witosky, T. (2004). Athletic spending grows as academic funds dry up. USA Today retrieved Dec 1, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/2004-02-18-athletic-spending-cover_x.htm
[2] Juan, M.T. (2016). Mental toughness and sport motivation of scholar athletes: Bases for a psychological skills training (PST) program. The Upland Farm Journal.
[3] Shafran, R., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C.G. (2002). Clinical perfectionism: A cognitive-behavioural analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 773-791.
[4] Flett, G.L., & Hewitt P.L., (2005). Perfectionism and maladjustment: An overview of theoretical, definitional, and treatment issues. In G. L. Flett & P. L. Hewitt. , Perfectionism: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 5–31.
[5] Durand-Bush, N., Salmela, J.H., Green-Demers, I. (2001). The otawwa mental skills assessment tool (OMSAT-3). The sport psychologist, 15(1), 1-19. Retrieved on September 2018 at http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/tsp.15.11
[6] Mann, M.E. (2009). Burnout, motivation and perceived coaching behavior in female intercollegiate athletes:Assessing relationships over a competitive season. Miami University Oxford, Ohio Thesis
[7] Dubuc, C.N, Durand, B.N. & Forneris, T. (2014). Exploring levels of student-athlete burnout at two Canadian universities. The Canadian Journal of Higher Education. 44(2), 135-151.
[8] Raedeke, T.D., Lunney, K., & Venables, K. (2002). Understanding athlete burnout: Coach perspectives. Journal of Sport Behavior, 25,181-206
[9] Goodger, K., Gorely, T., Lavallee, D., & Harwood, C. (2007). Burnout in sport: A systematic review. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 127-151
[10] Cresswell, S. & Hodge, K. (2004). Coping skills: Role of trait sport confidence and trait anxiety. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 98:433-438
[11] Lu, F.J.H., & Huang, S.J.H. (2002). Relationship among perfectionism, achievement goals, athletic identity, and athlete burnout. Paper presented at the meeting of The Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology, Tucson, AR
[12] Gould, D., & Dieffenbach, K. (2002). Overtraining, under recovery, and burnout in sport. In M. Kellmann (Ed.), Enhancing Recovery: Preventing under performance in athletes (25-35). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
[13] Nascimento, J.R.A, Vissoci, J.R.N, Lavallee, D. & Vieira, L.F., (2015). Adaptation and validation of the SportMultidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2 (SMPS-2) for the Brazilian sport context. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1980- 65742015000200003
[14] Gustafsson, Henrik. (2007). Prevalence of burnout in adolescent competitive athletes. Sport Psychologist. 21. 21-37.
[15] Hill A, & Curran T., (2015). Multidimensional perfectionism and burnout: A meta- analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review
[16] Stoltz, K., & Ashby, J.S. (2007). Perfectionism and lifestyle: Personality differences among adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists and non perfectionists. Journal of Individual Psychology, 63(4). retrieved from http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/journals
[17] Stoeber, J., & Stoeber, F. S. (2009). Domains of perfectionism: Prevalence and relationships with perfectionism, gender, age, and satisfaction with life. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 530-535. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.12.006

[18] Eisendrath, E. (2015). Playing positive. Retrieved on April 1, 2019 from https://www.play-positive.libertymutual.com
[19] Muller, R.T. (2015). Parental pressure takes a toll on young athletes. Psychology Today. Retrieved from psychologytoday.com on January 16, 2019
[20] Robinson, T.T., & Carron, A.V. (1982). Personal and situational factors associated with dropping out versus maintaining participation in competitive sport. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, 364-378.
[21] Perkins, D.F. (2017). Parents making youth sports a positive experience: Role models. The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved at https://extension.psu.edu/parents- making-youth-sports-a-positive- experience-role-models on May 5, 2019
[22] Goldberg, A. (2015). Peak performance and overcoming fears and blocks. Journal of Sports Psychology. www.competitiveadvantage.com
[22] Perkins, D.F. (2017). Parents making youth sports a positive experience: Role models. The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved at https://extension.psu.edu/parents-making-youth-sports-a-positive-experience-role-models on May 5, 2019
[23] Atianzar, M.B., Juan, M.T (2018). Level of test anxiety encountered by the BS criminology board examinees: Basis for a proposed psychological intervention program. Educational Research International Vol.7(2)
[24] Gucciardi,D.F.,Mahoney,J.,Geoffrey J.,Donovan,R.J.,& Parkes, J.(2012). Perfectionistic Profiles Among Elite Athletes and Differences in Their Motivational Orientations. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34, 159-183, Human Kinetics, Inc
[25] Hays, K; Thomas, O; Maynard, I. & Bewden, M. (2009).The role of confidence in world class sport performance. Journal of Sport Science vol 27 (11)
[26] Canavan, B. (2011). Developing a high performance program. RLCM DVD, Performance Coaching Conference
[27] Vealy, R.S (2001). Understanding and enhancing self-confidence in athletes. In Handbook of sport psychology, Edited by: Singer, R. N., Hausenblas, H. A. and Janelle, C. M. 550–565. New York: Wiley
[28] Stoll, O., Lau, A., Stoeber, J. (2008). Perfectionism and performance in a new basketball training task: Does striving for perfection enhance or undermine performance? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(5), 620-629. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.10.001
[29] Slade, P. & Owens, R.G. (1998). A dual process model of perfectionism based on reinforcement theory. Behavior Modification 22

[30] Sitzler, B. (2016). Burnout in athletes. National Athletic Trainers Association. Retrieved at https://www.nata.org on January 13, 2019
[31] Sellane, H. (2016). Overtraining and burnout in sport. Retrieved at http://.researchgate.net on January 13, 2019
[32] Cremades, J.G., Donlob, C.J., & Poczwardowski, A. (2012). Parental involvement and gender differences in the psychological profile of freshmen collegiate athletes. Journal of Sport and Health Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2012.05.001
[33] Zinsser, N., Bunker, L., & Williams, J. M. (2010). Cognitive techniques for building confidence and enhancing performance. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (6th ed., pp. 305–335). Boston: McGraw-Hill
[34] Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Zourbanos, N., Mpoumpaki, S., & Theodorakis, Y. (2009). Mechanisms underlying the self-talk-performance relationship: The effects of motivational self-talk on self-confidence and anxiety. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 186–192
[35] Salmela-Aro, K., Noona, K., Pietikäinen, M., & Jokela, J. (2008). Does school matter? The role of school context in adolescents’ school-related burnout. European Psychologist, 13, 12–23
[36] Hodge, K., Lonsdale, C., & Ng, J. Y. Y. (2008). Burnout in elite rugby: Relationships with basic psychological needs fulfilment. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 835–844
[37] Tashman, L.S. (2005). The Relationship Between Perfectionism and Burnout in Coaches. Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. Florida State University Libraries.
[38] Hill, A.P. (2013). Perfectionism and burnout in junior soccer players: A test of 2 x 2 model of dispositional perfection. Journal of sport and exercise psychology, 35 (1). 18-29. ISSN 0895-2779/
[39] Flett, G.L., & Hewitt P.L., (2005). Perfectionism and maladjustment: An overview of theoretical, definitional, and treatment issues. In G. L. Flett & P. L. Hewitt. , Perfectionism: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 5–31
[40] Hill A, & Curran T., (2015). Multidimensional perfectionism and burnout: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 2015.
[41] Le Masurier, G. C., Beighle, A., Corbin, C. B., Darst, P. W., Morgan, C., Pangrazi, R. P., (2005). Pedometer-determined physical activity levels of youth. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 2(2), 153-162
[42] Miguel, P.S., Leo, F.M., Oliva, D.S., Amado,A., & Calvo, T.G. (2013). The importance of parents’ behavior in their children’s enjoyment and amotivation in sports. Journal of Human Kinetics.36: 169–177. 28. doi: 10.2478/hukin-2013-0017PMCID: PMC3661888
[43] Leef, S.S & Hoyle, R.H. (1998). Young athletes perceptions of parental support and pressure. Retrieved on December 7, 2018 at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01537149
[44] Bledsoe, E. S. (2016). Burned out: The relationship between coaching style and burnout in elite athletes. Sport Management Undergraduate. Retrieved at http://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/sport_undergrad/114 on January 3, 2019
[45] Hanton, S. , Flecther, D. and Coughlan, G. (2003). Stress in elite sport performers: A comparative study of competitive and organizational stressors. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 1119-1141
[46] Wells, A. (2009). Metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression. New York: Guilford Press
[47] Hall, H. K., Hill, A. P., & Appleton, P. R. (2012) Perfectionism: A foundation for sporting excellence or an uneasy pathway toward purgatory? In Roberts, G.C. & Treasure D. (2012) Advances in motivation in sport and exercise: Volume 3. Pages 129-168. Human Kinetics Publishers