International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 4, April 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Effect Of Blended Learning Strategy On Achievement In Economics In Relation To Motivation To Learn

[Full Text]



Dr. Ram Mehar, Rupneet Kaur Jassar



blended Learning Strategy, Conventional Teaching Strategy, Achievement in Economics, and Motivation to Learn Economics.



The present study investigates the effect of blended learning strategy on achievement in Economics in relation to motivation to learn Economics. The sample consisted of 120 students of XI class from two private schools of Amritsar city affiliated to CBSE, New Delhi. The study covered two independent variables viz. instructional strategies and motivation to learn Economics. The variable of instructional strategies was studied at two levels, namely blended learning strategy and conventional teaching strategy. The variables of motivation to learn was studied as three levels, namely high, average and low motivation to learn economics. The dependent variable was the performance gain which was calculated as the difference in post-test and pre-test scores. The experimental group was taught through blended learning strategy on various five topics from the Economics subject of class XI and the control group was taught by conventional method of teaching by the investigators. The instructional material and achievement test in Economics was developed by the investigators. The tool was used for data collection. The achievement test in Economics and motivation to learn Economics test was also administered. After pre and post-testing of all the students, the mean gain scores were computed. The statistical techniques such as Mean and SD were used in the analysis of data. F-ratio and t-test were employed to find the significance of difference between means related to different groups and variables. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (2×3) and following conclusions were drawn: (i) The performance of blended learning strategy group was found significantly higher as compared to the conventional teaching group. (ii)The performance of high motivation to learn group was higher than that of average and low motivation to learn economics group (iii) There was significant interaction effect was found between the instructional strategies and motivation to learn economics group.



[1]. R. Elmas, B. Demirdogen and O. Geban, “Preservice chemistry teachers’ images about science teaching in their future classrooms,” Hacettepe University Journal of Education, vol. 40, no 40, pp.164-175. 2011.
[2]. O. F. Keser, “Recommendations towards developing educational standards to improve science education in Turkey,” Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 4, no.1, pp. 46-53. 2005
[3]. D. Sulisworo, S.P. Agustin and E. Sudarmiyati, “Cooperative-blended learning using Moodle as an open source learning platform,” International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, vol. 8, no.2, pp.187-198. 2016.
[4]. D. H. Lim and M. L. Morris, “Learner and instructional factors influencing learning outcomes within a blended learning environment,” Journal of Educational Technology & Society, vol.12, no. 4, pp. 282-293. 2009
[5]. S. J. Lachman, “Learning is a process: Toward an improved definition of learning,” The Journal of Psychology, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 477-480. 1997.
[6]. I. E. Allen, J. Seaman and R. Garrett, “Blending in: the extent and promise of blended education in the United States,” Sloan Consortium: Newburyport. 2007.
[7]. M. Oliver and K. Trigwell, “Can ‘blended learning’ be redeemed?” E-learning and Digital Media, vol. 2, no. 1, pp.17-26. 2005.
[8]. M. Kerres and C. De-Witt, “A didactical framework for the design of blended learning arrangements,” Journal of Educational Media, vol. 28, no. 2-3, pp. 101-113. 2003.
[9]. M. Tayebinik and M. Puteh, “Blended learning or E-learning?” International Magazine on Advances in Computer Science and Telecommunications, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 103-110. 2012.
[10]. C. R. Graham, “Blended learning systems: Definition, current trends and future directions,” In C.J. Bonk and C.R. Graham, (Eds.), “The handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs,” San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer Publishing. 2006
[11]. C. R. Graham, “Blended learning systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions,” In C. J. Bonk, & C.R. Graham (Eds.), “The handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs,” San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer Publishing. 2004.
[12]. Y. Zhu, W. Au and G. Yates, “University students' attitudes toward online learning in a blended course,” In J. White (Ed.), AARE conference papers,” Retrieved November3,2019fromhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/324596694_Students'_Attitudes_toward_Blended_Learning_in_EFL_Context. 2013.
[13]. J. Welker and L. Berardino, “Blended learning: Understanding the middle ground between traditional classroom and fully online instruction,” The Journal of Educational Technology Systems, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 33-55. 2005
[14]. J. MacDonald, “Blended learning and online tutoring: Planning learner support and activity design,” Burlington, VT: Gower Publishing. 2008.
[15]. M. Driscoll, “Blended learning: Let’s get beyond the hype. E-learning, vol. 1, no.4, pp.1-4. 2002.
[16]. M. K. Sharma,”Vocational maturity in relation to self-concept, occupational aspiration, family environment and academic achievement of senior secondary school students,” Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis. Amritsar: Guru Nanak Dev University. 2009.
[17]. L. D. Crow and A. Crow, “Adolescent’s development and adjustment,” New York, US: McGraw Hill Book Company. 1969.
[18]. S. Algarabel and C. Dasi, “The definition of achievement and the construction of tests for its measurement: A review of the main trends. Psicologica, vol. 22, no. 1, pp.43-66. 2001.
[19].T.R. Guskey, “Defining student achievement,” In J. Hattie and E. M. Anderman (Eds.), “International guide to student achievement,” New York, NY: Routledge. 2013
[20]. J. A. C. Hattie and E. Anderman, “International guide to student achievement,” New York, NY: Routledge. 2013.
[21]. J. A. Martineau, “The validity of value-added models: An allegory,” Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 91, no.7, pp.64-67. 2010
[22]. S. L. Harris, “The relationship between self-esteem and academic success among African American students in the minority engineering program at a research extensive university in the southern portion of the United States,” Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Baton Rouge, US: Louisiana State University. 2009 Retrieved November 1,2019fromhttp://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2725&context=gradschool_dissertations
[23]. S.K. Mangal, “The learner nature and development,” Delhi: Tondon Publication. 2009.
[24]. W.A. Kelly, “Educational psychology,” Mil,Wankee: Bruee Publishing House. 1955
[25]. S. McPheat, “Personal confidence and motivation,” London: MTD Training & Ventus Publishing. 2010
[26]. J. Kurniawan, Z. M. Effendi and S. Dwita, “The effect of school environment, family environment and learning motivation on students’ learning performance,” In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Economics Education, Economics, Business and Management, Accounting and Entrepreneurship, Padang, Indonesia. 2018. Retrieved December 15, 2019fromfile:///C:/Users/hp/Downloads/25902637%20(1).pdf
[27]. M. K. Alderman, “Motivation for achievement: Possibilities for teaching and learning,” Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1999.
[28]. M. K. Alderman, “Motivation for achievement: Possibilities for teaching and learning,” London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2004.
[29]. R. E. Slavin, “Educational psychology: Theory and practice,” New York, USA: Pearson Publication. 2006.
[30]. P. R. Pintrich, “An achievement goal theory perspective on issues in motivation terminology, theory and research,” Contemporary Educational Psychology,vol. 25, no.1, pp. 92-104. 2000.
[31]. Z. Dornyei, “Motivational strategies in the language classroom,” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2001.
[32]. M. P Levpuscek and M. Zupancic, “Math achievement in early,” Journal of Early Adolescence, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1–30. 2008.
[33]. D. Palmer, “What is the best way to motivate students in science?” Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers, vol. 53, no.1, pp. 38-42. 2007.
[34]. F. H. Adams, “Using jigsaw technique as an effective way of promoting cooperative learning among primary six pupils in Fijai,” International Journal of Education and Practice, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 64-74. 2013.
[35]. S. S. Jalota, “General Mental Ability Test,” Agra: National Psychological Corporation. 1972.
[36]. R. D. Owston and H. H. Wideman, “Internet-based courses at Atkinson College: An initial assessment.Toronto, ON: New York University. 1999. Retrieved December 14, 2019fromhttp://www.yorku.ca/irlt/reports.html
[37]. J. M. O'Toole and D. J. Absalom, “The impact of blended learning on student outcomes: Is there room on the horse for two?” Journal of Educational Media, vol. 28, no. 2-3, pp. 179-190. 2003.
[38]. S. K Taradi, M. Taradi, K. Radic and N. Pokrajac, “Blending problem-based learning with Web technology positively impacts student learning outcomes in acid-base physiology,” Advances in Physiology Education, vol. 29, no. 1, pp.35-39. 2005.
[39]. B. Akkoyunlu and M. Yilmaz-Soylu, “A study on students' views about blended learning environment,” Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, vol.7, no. 3, pp.43-56. 2006.
[40]. N. P. Morris,“Blended learning approaches enhance student academic performance,” In Proceedings of Enhancing Learning Experiences in Higher Education: International Conference, Hong Kong University. 2010. Retrieved December 12, 2019fromhttps://www.cetl.hku.hk/conference2010/pdf/Morris.pdf
[41]. I. U. Yapici and H. Akbayin, “The effect of blended learning model on high school students' Biology achievement and on their attitudes towards the Internet,” Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 11, no.2, pp. 228-237. 2012.
[42]. I. Y Kazu and M. Demirkol, “Effect of blended learning environment model on high school students' academic achievement,” Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 13, no.1, pp.78-87. 2014.
[43]. M. A. Alajab and A. M. A. Hussain, “The impact of a blended learning course on Khartoum University students’ achievement and motivation to learn scientific English,” American International Journal of Social Science, vol.4, no.2, pp.132-158. 2015.
[44]. N. S. K. Khader, “The effectiveness of blended learning in improving students' achievement in third grade's science in Bani Kenana,” Journal of Education and Practice, vol. 7, no.35, pp.109-116. 2016.
[45]. V. K. Ceylan and A. E. Kesici, “Effect of blended learning to academic achievement,” Journal of Human Sciences, 14(1), 308-320. 2017.
[46]. R. Mehar and R. Kaur, “Effect of blended learning strategy on achievement in Computer Science in relation to computer self- efficacy,” International Journal of Higher Education and Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp 85-102. 2018.
[47]. F. Harahap, N. E. A. Nasution and Manurung, “The effect of blended learning on student's learning achievement and science process skills in plant tissue culture course,” International Journal of Instruction, vol. 12, no.1, pp. 521-538. 2019.
[48]. V. Demirer and I. Sahin, “Effect of blended learning environment on transfer of learning: An experimental study,” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 29, no. 6, pp 518–529. 2013.
[49]. J. K Komarnicki and Y. Qian, “How do they fare? Learning achievement and satisfaction with blended learning for traditional-age undergraduates at moderately selective colleges,” In Critical Examinations of Distance Education Transformation across Disciplines (pp. 178-195).2015.Retrieved December 14, 2019, from https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/how-do-they-fare/118001
[50]. S. C Broussard and M. B. Garrison, “The relationship between classroom motivation and academic achievement in elementary‐school‐aged children,” Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, vol. 33, no.2, pp. 106-120. 2004
[51]. R. Gilman and E.M. Anderman, “The relationship between relative levels of motivation and intrapersonal, interpersonal and academic functioning among older adolescents,” Journal of School Psychology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 375-391. 2006.
[52]. K. Jacobson, “The characteristics and roles of motivation attributes on high school students’ academic achievement and the implications for Michigan high schools in the era of the merit core curricula,” Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Michigan, U.S: NorthernMichiganUniversity.2009.RetrievedDecember13,2019https://www.nmu.edu/sites/Drupas/Projects/Jacobsonpdf
[53]. A. O. Onuka and E. O. Durowoju, “Motivation and gender as determinants of achievement in senior secondary school economics,” European Journal of Educational Studies, vol.3, no. 2, pp. 209-216. 2011.
[54]. A.M.A. Al-Zoghby and H.A.A. Doumy, “The effect of blended learning on the achievement of the fourth graders' and their motivation towards learning mathematics in Jordanian schools,” Damascus University Journal, vol. 28, no.1, pp.485 - 518. 2012.
[55]. S. J. Chow and B. C. S. Yong, “Secondary School Students' Motivation and Achievement in Combined Science,” US-China Education Review, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 213-228. 2013.
[56]. A. S. Muhammad, N. A. Bakar, S. I Mijinyawa and K. A. Halabi, “Impact of motivation on students’ academic performance: A case study of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin students,” The American Journal of Innovative Research and Applied Sciences, vol. 1, no.6, pp. 221-226. 2015.
[57]. S. Islam, H. Baharun, C. Muali, M.I. Ghufron, M. El Iq Bali, M. Wijaya and I. Marzuki, “ To boost students’ motivation and achievement through blended learning,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1114, no.1, pp. 1-11. 2018.
[58]. A. Karakolidis, V. Pitsia and A. Emvalotis, “The case of high motivation and low achievement in science: what is the role of students’ epistemic beliefs?” International Journal of Science Education, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1-18. 2019.
[59]. G. Siann, P. Lightbody, R. Stocks and D. Walsh, “Motivation and attribution at secondary school: the role of ethnic group and gender,” Gender and Education, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 261-274. 1996
[60]. A. K. Lindsey-Randall, “The effect of reading self-efficacy, expectancy-value, and metacognitive self-regulation on the achievement and persistence of community college students enrolled in basic skills reading courses. 2008. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Los Angeles, CA, United States: University of Southern California.
[61]. K. A. Bakar, R. A Tarmizi, R. Mahyuddin, H. Elias, W. S. Luan and A. F. M. Ayub, “Relationships between university students’ achievement motivation, attitude and academicperformanceinMalaysia,” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 2, no.2, pp.4906-4910. 2010.
[62]. J. R. Haughery, “Student motivation and academic success: Examining the influences, differences, and economics of mechatronic experiences in fundamental undergraduate courses,” Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Ames, Iowa: Iowa StateUniversity.2017.RetrievedDecember13,2019fromhttps://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7149&cotd
[63]. H. Machumu, C. Zhu and M. Almasi, “Students’ motivational factors and engagement strategies in constructivist-basedblendedlearning environments,” Afrika Focus, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 13-34. 2018.