International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 3- Issue 7, July 2014 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Effect Of Linseed Fed As Ground Seed, Oil And Ca-Salt On Milk Yield And Its Fatty Acid Profile In Dairy Cows

[Full Text]



Netsanet Beyero, V.Kapoor, B.S.Tewatia



Index Terms: Dairy cow, linseed oil, milk fatty acid, conjugated linoleic acid



Abstract: Experiment was conducted on twenty-four crossbred dairy cows divided into four groups of six animals in each group. Cows were fed on iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric ration consisting of concentrate mixture and roughage. The concentrate mixture of four treatment groups differed with regard to the source of fat/oil and contained GNC (T1), ground linseed (T2), Ca-salt of linseed oil (T3) and linseed oil (T4). Roughages offered were green berseem forage and wheat straw. DMI (kg/d, g/ W0.75kg, or % BW) did not vary significantly among treatments. Digestibility (%) of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, EE, NFE, NDF and ADF) did not vary among treatments. Daily average milk yield and 4% FCM yield did not vary significantly among the treatments. Milk yield (kg/d) ranged between 12.40 (T3) and 13.38 (T2). Percentage of milk protein, fat, lactose, MUN, Cholesterol, TS and total ash were not affected by different treatments. TLCFA and PUFA were significantly (P <0.05) higher in T3 than in T1, T2 and T4. Total PUFA yield (g/100g fat) increased by 137.34% in cows fed bypass fat as compared to control group (T1). Total CLA yield (mg/g fat) improved by 74.97% in cows fed linseed over T1. The total feeding cost was highest (USD 3.33/d) in T3, followed by (USD 2.76/d) T4, (USD 2.56/d) T2, and (USD 2.49/d) T1. The feeding cost per g PUFA production reduced by 42% in cows fed bypass fat than control diet. The feeding cost per g CLA production reduced by 44% in cows fed linseed than control diet. In summary, these results suggest that milk fatty acid profile is improved for better human health by feeding linseed products, as shown by higher concentrations of PUFA including CLA recognized as being beneficial to reduce the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and stimulate the immune system.



[1]. McGuire, M. A., McGuire, M. K. and McGuire, M. S. 1997. Bovine acid. The natural CLA. Proc. Cornell Nutr. Conf. Feed Manuf., Rochester, NY. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY, pp. 217 – 226.

[2]. Ip, C., Scimeca, J. A. and Thompson, H. J. 1994. Conjugated Linoleic Acid, CLA Cancer Supplement 74B: 1050-1054. Cited by: Williams M Christine, 2000. Dietary fatty acids and human health: Review article. Ann. Zootech., 49: 165-180.

[3]. Parodi, P. W. 1999. A bold new look a milk fat. Conjugated linoleic acid and other anticarcinogenic agents of bovine milk fat. J. Dairy Sci., 82: 1339-1349.

[4]. Crumb, D. J. 2011. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)-An Overview. Int. J. App. Res. in Natural Products.4 (3): pp. 12-18.

[5]. Lee, K. N., Kritchevsky, D. and Pariza, M.W. 1994. Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis. 108: 19-25.

[6]. Soita, H. W., Meier, J. A., Fehr, M., Yu, P., Christensen, D. A., Mckinon, J. J. and Mustafa, A. F. 2003. Effects of flaxseed supplementation on milk production, milk fatty acid composition and nutrient utilization by lactating dairy cows. Archives Anim. Nutr., 57 (2): 107-116.

[7]. Noble, R. C., Moore, J. H. and Harfoot, C. G.1974. Observations on the pattern on biohydrogenation of esterified and unesterified linoleic acid in the rumen. Br. J. Nutr., 31: 99-108.

[8]. Halima, S., Takeshi, I., Toshilhiro, S., Shuhei, K. and Hisao, I. 2008. Effect of feeding Ca-salts of fatty acids from soybean oil and linseed oil on c9,t11-CLA production in ruminal fluid and milk of Holstein dairy cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 21(9): 1262-1270.

[9]. Petit, H. V. 2002. Digestion, milk production, milk composition, and blood composition of dairy cows fed whole flaxseed. J. Dairy Sci., 85: 1482-1490.

[10]. Giesy, J. G., McGuire, M. A., Shafii, B. and Hanson, T. W. 2002. Effect of dose of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on percentage and fatty acid content of milk fat in mid lactation Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci.,58: 2023-2029.

[11]. NRC. 2001. National Research Council. Nutrient of Requirement of Dairy Cattle. 6th ed. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. USA.

[12]. AOAC. 2005. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th ed. Washington D.C.

[13]. Goering, H. K. and Van Soest, P. J. 1970. Forage fibre Analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications), Agricultural Hand book, No.379. USDA, Washington D.C.

[14]. Perry N.A and F.J. Doon. 1950. Picric acid method for simultaneous determination for lactose and sucrose in dairy products. J. Dairy Sci. 33:176-178

[15]. Bindal, M. P. and Jain, M. K. 1973. Determination of cholesterol content of ghee. J. Ind. Chem. Soc.,50: 63.

[16]. Bector, B. S., Moti, R. and Singhal, O. P. 1998. Rapid platform test for the detection/ determination of added urea in milk. Indian. Dairyman,50(4): 59-62

[17]. Dhiman, T. R., Anand, G. R, Satter, L. D. and Pariza, M.W. 1999. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets. J. Dairy Sci.,82: 2146–2156.

[18]. AOAC. 1995. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis. 16th ed. Arlington, VA.

[19]. Doreau, M., Aurousseau, E. and Martin, C. 2009. Effects of linseed lipids fed as rolled seeds, extruded seeds or oil on organic matter and crude protein digestion in cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 150: 187-196. In: Petit, H.V. 2010. Feed intake, milk production and milk composition of dairy cows fed flaxseed. Can.. J. Anim. Sci., 90(2): 115-127.

[20]. Martin, C., Rouel, J., Jouany, J. P., Doreau, M. and Chilliard, Y. 2008. Methane output and diet digestibility in response to feeding dairy cows crude linseed, extruded linseed, or linseed oil. J. Anim. Sci.,86: 2642-2650.

[21]. Kennelly, J. J. and Khorasani, R. G. 1992. Influence of flaxseed feeding on the fatty acid composition of cow’s milk. Proceedings of the 54th Flax Inst. Conf. Carter, J. F. (Ed.). North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND. pp. 99-105.

[22]. Collomb, M., Sollberger, H., Bu-tikofer, U., Sieber, R., Stoll, W. and Schaeren, W. 2004. Impact of a basal diet of hay and fodder beet supplemented with rapeseed, linseed and sunflower seed on the fatty acid composition of milk fat. Int. Dairy J., 14: 549-559.

[23]. Chouinard, P. Y., Girard, V., and Brisson, G. J. 1998. Fatty acid profile and physical properties of milk fat from cows fed calcium salts of fatty acids with varying unsaturation. J. Dairy Sci. 81:471-481.

[24]. Cristina, Z., Mauro, S., Angela, S., Elena, F., Emanuele, B., Domenico, D. and Emilio, S. 2009. Effect of dietary inclusion of flaxseed onmilk yield and composition of dairy cows. Ital. J. Anim. Sci.,8 (2): 444-446.

[25]. Petit, H.V. 2010. Feed intake, milk production and milk composition of dairy cows fed flaxseed. ReviewArticle. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 90(2): 115-127.

[26]. Bauman, D. E. and Griinari, J. M. 2003. Nutritional regulation of milk fat synthesis. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 23:203-227. In: Bork, N. R., Schroeder, J. W., Lard,y G. P., Vonnahme, K. A., Bauer, M. L., Buchanan D. S., Shaver, R. D. and Fricke, P. M.. 2010. Effect of feeding rolled flaxseed on milk fatty acid profiles and reproductive performance of dairy cows. J Anim Sci., 88:3739-3748.

[27]. Bork, N. R., Schroeder, J. W., Lardy, G. P., Vonnahme, K. A., Bauer, M. L., Buchanan, D. S., Shaver, R. D. and Fricke, P. M. 2010. Effect of feeding rolled flaxseed on milk fatty acid profiles and reproductive performance of dairy cows. J. Anim Sci., 88:3739-3748.

[28]. Khorasani, R. G. and Kennelly, J. J. 1994. Influence of flaxseed on the nutritional quality of milk. Proceedings of the 55th Flax Inst. Conf. J. F. Carter, (Ed). North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND. pp. 127-134.

[29]. Côrtes, C., da Silva-Kazama, D. C, Kazama, R., Gagnon,N., Benchaar, C., Santos, G.T. D., Zeoula, L. M., and Petiti, H. V. 2010. Milk composition, milk fatty acid profile, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil. J. Dairy Sci.93:3146-3157.

[30]. Kennelly, J. J. 1996. The fatty acid composition of milk as influenced by feeding oilseeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 60:137-152.

[31]. Grummer, R. R. 1991. Effect of feed on the composition on milk fat. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3244-3257.

[32]. Goodridge, R. R., Ingalls, J. R. and Crow, G. H. 2001. Transfer of omega-3 linolenic and linoleic acid to milk fat from flaxseed or linola protected with formaldehyde. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 81: 525–532.

[33]. Brzóska,F. 2006. Effect of fatty acid calcium salts from linseed oil on the yield and n-3 fatty acid content of milk and on blood plasma parameters of cows. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 15: 347-360.

[34]. AlZahal, O., Or-Rashid, M. M., Greenwood, S.L., Douglas, M. S. and McBride, B.W. 2008. The effect of dietary fiber level on milk fat concentration and fatty acid profile of cows fed diets containing low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. J. Dairy Sci., 92:1108-1116.

[35]. Harfoot, C.G. and Hazelwood, G.P. 1988. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. In: Hobson, P.N. (Ed.) The Rumen Microbial Ecosysytem, (Elsevier), London. pp. 285-322

[36]. Griinari, J. M., Corl, B. A., Lacy, S. H., Chouinard, P. Y., Nurmela, K. V. and Bauman, D. E. 2000. Conjugated linoleic acid is synthesized endogenously in lactating dairy cows by Delta-9-desaturase. J. Nutr.,130: 2285-2291.[37]. Silva, C.F., R.F. Scwan, E.S. Dias and A.E. Wheals, 2000. Microbial diversity during Maturation and Natural Processing of coffee cherries of coffee Arabica in Brazil. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 60: 251-260

[37]. Corl, B. A., Chouinard, P. Y., Dwyer, D. A., Bauman, D. E., Griinari, J. M. and Nurmela, K. V. 1998. Conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat of dairy cows originates in part by endogenous synthesis from trans-11 octadecenoic acid. J. Dairy Sci.,81(1): 233.