Antimicrobial Activities Of Some Selected Edible Mushrooms And Spices Against Clinical Isolates From Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA), Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
Udu-Ibiam, O.E., Ogbu, O., Nworie, O., Ibiam, U.A., Agah, M.V., Nnachi, A.U., Ogbu, K.I., Chukwu, O.S.
Index Terms: Antimicrobial agents, Clinical Isolates, Drug Resistance, Garlic, Ginger, Mushrooms, Nigeria.
Abstract: The rampant multi-drug resistance among human pathogenic microorganisms has necessitated a continuous search for new and potent antimicrobial substances, especially among plants. Also, the importance of herbal plants as sources of alternative medicine is documented worldwide. In this study, antimicrobial activities of extracts of seven edible mushrooms and two spices (ginger and garlic) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans from Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA), Ebonyi State, Nigeria were investigated. Antimicrobial components from the mushrooms and spices were extracted with hot water and cold water, ethanol and diethyl ether; the antimicrobial activities were examined by agar well diffusion method. Zones of inhibition were seen mostly in hot water extracts of five mushrooms (Trichaptum sp, Flammulina sp, Boletus sp, Tricholoma sp, and Psalliota campestris) on culture plates inoculated with S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. Pyogenes, E. coli and C. albicans at 37oC within 24hrs. The cold water extracts of the mushroom, P. campestris, gave the highest zone of inhibition of 25.0 mm, followed by 15.0 mm when used against P. aeruginosa. While for spices, the cold water extracts yielded the highest zones of inhibition of 25.0 mm followed by 20.0mm as were observed with ginger. The results obtained have shown clearly that the mushrooms (Trichaptum sp, Tricholoma nudum, Psalliota campestris, Flammulina sp, Boletus sp), garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officianale) extracts contain phytochemicals with some antimicrobial activities while Cortinarius sp showed no antimicrobial activity. The water extracts of the mushrooms and spices showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity much more than ethanol and diethyl ether extracts. Generally, hot water extracts of the mushrooms were more potent as antimicrobial agent than either ethanol or cold water extract. It is hereby recommended that these bioactive compounds in mushrooms, ginger and garlic which show antimicrobial activities should be harnessed, patented and circulated as alternative antimicrobials to curb the increasing menace of antimicrobial resistance.
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