International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us

IJSTR >> Volume 7 - Issue 5, May 2018 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Toxicological Studies On Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation And Oxidative DNA Damage In Residents Of An Oil Producing Area

[Full Text]



Ifenkwe John Chimerenka, Nwanjo Harrison Ugochukwu, Nwosu Dennis Chimezie, Ogbotobo Roland Fiezibe



Heavy Metal, Bioaccumulation, Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage Contaminants Reactive Oxygen Species.



This study was carried out on blood samples collected from 200 residents each from Igbeta-Ewoama (Oil Producing Area) and Odi (Non-Oil Producing Area) both in Bayelsa State, Nigeria, to determine the blood levels of Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury and Selenium and also the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Blood samples were also analyzed for WBC, Hb, platelets, prothrombin time and serum concentrations of AST, ALT, albumin, ALP, bilirubin, gamma GT, total protein, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, urea and creatinine. Residents in Igbeta-Ewoama had the highest blood levels of Mercury, Lead, Selenium, Cadmium, Chromium and 8-OHdG and they were all significantly different at p<0.05. Residents in Igbeta-Ewoama had the highest mean values of all the measured liver and kidney functions parameters with the exception of albumin, total protein, sodium, chloride and bicarbonate. These values were all statistically different at P<0.05. There was significant difference in the levels of Hb, WBC and Platelet while the length of bleeding time was prolonged in the residents of Igbeta-Ewoama community. The findings of this study suggest that the probability of occurrence of diseases associated with metal toxicity and oxidative stress might be higher among residents in the oil producing area.



[1]. Kakulu, S.E. (1985). Heavy Metals in the Niger Delta: Impact of Petroleum Industry on the Baseline Levels. Ph.D Thesis University of Ibadan.

[2]. Akporhonor, E.E., Iwegbue, C.M.A., Egwaikikhide, P.A and Emua, S.A. (2007). Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Organs of some Fish Species from Warri River, Nigeria. J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria, 32 (1) 221-226.

[3]. Szymańska-Chabowska, A. , Beck, A. , Poręba, R., Andrzejak, A. and Antonowicz- Juchniewicz, J.(2009). Evaluation of DNA Damage in People Occupationally Exposed to Arsenic and Some Heavy Metals. Polish Journal Of Environmental Studies. (18): 1131-1139.

[4]. Durackova, Z. (2010). Some Current Insights into Oxidative S Stress Physiology Research. (59): 459 468.

[5]. Winder, C. (2004). Toxicity of Metals, in: Occupational Toxicology. Stacey , N. H. Ed., Taylor and Francis , London: 294.

[6]. Duane, M.E. and James, Y.K. (1997) Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Metal Toxicities, CRC Press, New York: 189-219.

[7]. Essiet, U.A., Effiong, G.S., Ogbemudia, F.A. and Bruno, E.J. (2010) Heavy Metal Concentration in Plants Growing in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil in Akwa Ibom State, South Eastern Nigeria African Journal of Pharmcology and Physiology (7): 165 470.

[8]. Kpobari, W.N., Matthew, O.W. and Eka, B. E. (2013). Heavy Metals Concentrations in Four Selected Sea Foods from Crude Oil Polluted Waters of Ogoniland, Rivers State,Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research 5 (4):99- 104.

[9]. Uzoekwe, S.A., and Achudume, A.C. (2011) Pollution Status and Effect of Crude Oil Spillage in Ughoton Stream Ecosystem in Niger Delta. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment.3(15):469-473.

[10]. www.bayelsa.gov.ng Assessed July, 2017.

[11]. Block, C., Freyermuth, S., Beyersmann, D. and Malviya, A.N. (1992). Role of Cadmium in Activating Nuclear Protein Kinase C and the Enzyme Binding to Nuclear Protein. Journal o Journal of Biology and Chemistry (28):19824 19828.

[12]. Valko, M., Leibfritz, D., Moncol, J., Cronin, M.T.D., Mazur, M., Telser, J. (2007). Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Normal Physiological Functions and Human Disease. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (23): 209-213.

[13]. Saito, S., Yamauchi, H., Hasul., Y., Kurashige, J., Ochi and Yoshida, K. (2000). Quantitative Determination of 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine by Using ELISA, Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology (107): 39-44.

[14]. Reitman, S and Frankel, S (1957) Alanine Aminotransferase American Journal of Clinical Pathology (28): 56.

[15]. Doumas, B. T., Watson, W.A, and Briggs, H.G. (1971). Albumin Clinica Chimica Acta (31): 87-96.

[16]. Jendrassik, L. and Grof, P. (1938). Bilirubin, Biochemistry (81): 297.

[17]. Kochmar, J.F. and Moss, D.W. (1976). Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry Tietz Edition. W.B. Saunders and Company, Philadelphia: 604.

[18]. Slot, C. (1965). Scandinevia Journal of Clinical Laboratory Investigations. (17): 381 387.

[19]. Vanencia, A., Arulselvi, S., Kanchana, R. And Ravindra, M.P. (2011). Agreement of Two Different Laboratory Methods Used to Measure Electrolytes. Journal of Laboratory Physicians (2): 104-109.

[20]. Whisler, S and Dahlgren, C. (2005). Performance Evaluation of the Sysmex poch-100i Automated Haematology Analyzer Laboratory Haematology (2): 101-117.

[21]. Dacie, J.V and Lewis, S.M. (1984).Practical Hematology: 120.

[22]. Idodo-Umeh G. and Ogbeibu A.E.(2010) Bioaccumulation of the Heavy Metals in Cassava Tubers and Plantain Fruits Grown in Soils Impacted with Petroleum and Non-Petroleum Activities, Research Journal of Environmental Science. (4): 33-41

[23]. Nwankwo C.N. and Ogagarue D.O. (2011). Effects of Gas Glaring on Surface and Ground Waters in Delta State Nigeria, Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 3(5): 131-136.

[24]. Sirivarasai, J., Kaojaren, S., Wananukul, W., Srisomerang, P. (2002). Non-Occupational Determinants of Cadmium and Lead in Blood and Urine Among a General Population in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 33(1): 180-187.

[25]. Khassouani, C.E., Soulaymani, R., Mauras, Y., Allain, P. (2000). Blood Cadmium Concentration in the Population of the Rabat Area, Morocco. Clinica Chimica Acta, 302(1-2): 155-160.

[26]. Bushnik, T., Haines, D., Levallois, P., Levesque, J., Van Oostdam, J., Viau, C.(2010). Lead and bisphenol A concentrations in the Canadian population. Health Reports, 21(3): 1-12.

[27]. Ibeto, C.N., Okoye, C.O.B. (2010). High levels of Heavy Metalsin Blood of the Urban Population of Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Science (4): 371-382.

[28]. Olsson, I.M., Bensryd, I., Lundh, T., Ottosson, H., Skerfving, S., Oskarsson, A.(2002). Cadmium in Blood and Urine - Impact of Sex, Age, Dietary Intake, Iron Status, and Former Smoking - Association of Renal Effects. Environmental Health Perspective, 110(12): 11851190.

[29]. Adedara, I.A , Ebokaiwe, A.P and Farombi, E.O (2011). Tissues Distribution of Heavy Metals and Erythrocytes Antioxidant Status in Rats Exposed to Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil. Toxicology and Industrial Health: 17.

[30]. Yang, Y., Tian Y., Yan C., Jin, X., Tang, J. and Shen, X. (2008). Determinants of Urinary 8-Hydnoxyl-2-Deoxyguanosine in Chinese Children with Acute Leukemia, Environmental Toxicology. (16): 128 133.

[31]. Egwurugwu J.N., Nwafor A. , Oluronfemi O.J.. Iwuji S.C. and Alagwu E.A.(2013). Impact of Prolonged Exposure to Oil and Gas Flares on Human Renal Functions. International Research Journal of Medical Science.. 1(11): 9-16.

[32]. Orisakwe, O. E., Njan, A. A, Afonne, O. J., and Akumba, D. D. (2004). Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 1(2): 106-110.

[33]. Achparaki, M., Thessalonikeos, E., Tsoukali, H., Mastrogianni, O., Zaggelidou E., Chatzinikolaou, F., Vasilliades, N and Raikos, N (2012). Heavy Metals Toxicity. Aristotle University Medical Journal 39(1): 29 -34.