Presence Of Multi Drug Resistant Coliform Bacteria Isolated From Biofilm Of Sachet And Borehole Waters Sold In Abakaliki Metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
Okafor Collins Onyebuchi Okeke, Nwadiogbu Ifeanyi Anthony, Agumah Nnabuife Bernard, Eni Obehi Eugene, Odinkemere Stephen Chijindu
Key words: Biofilm, coliform, bacteria, multi-drug resistance, sachet, borehole, water.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the presence of multi drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Five hundred (500) samples of water comprising 250 each from selected brand of sachet water retailers and borehole water dispensers from seven locations were sampled for the detection of coliform bacteria from biofilm and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility using commercially prepared antibiotic discs. Results revealed a high faecal contamination level in sachet waters as Gospel 36 (72%), Aqua Rapha 30 (60%) and Bejoy 18 (36%) were the highest among the sachet water brands examined, with Nene and Rock Tama sachet water brands having the lowest contamination level of 6(12%) and 13(26%) respectively. Borehole samples, results revealed that Aboffia had 27 (76.93%) samples contaminated with faecal bacteria while Azugwu 11 (28.5%), Azuiyiokwu 18 (50%), Azuiyiudene 29(80%), Kpirikpiri 24 (66.63%), Presco/Ntezi 16(46.15%) and Udensi 22 (61.54%). Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp were the major contaminants of both sachet and borehole water samples. The bacteria isolates from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters were susceptible to only three of the antibiotics used namely nitrofurantoin, amoxycilin and ampicillin. The bacteria were completely resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, norbactin/norfloxacin, ofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. This showed that they exhibit multi-drug resistance pattern which is a common feature of medically important biofilm bacteria. We therefore report the presence of multi-drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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