Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Properties Of The Genus Pericopsis Thwaites (Papilionaceae) In Nigeria
Okanlawon T.F., Ariwaodo J.O., Adeniji K.A.
Keywords: Phytochemical properties, Antimicrobial properties, Pericopsis elata, Pericopsis laxiflora, Powdered leaves, Stem bark, Microorganisms, Phytochemicals
Abstract: This present study examined the phytochemical and Antimicrobial properties of the two occurring Nigerian species of Pericopsis (Allopatric taxa): Pericopsis elata and Pericopsis laxiflora. The phytochemical content and antimicrobial properties of the leaves and stem bark of both species were examined using standard techniques. Antimicrobial activity of the stem bark and leaf of the two species were confirmed using the agar diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory conc. test (MIC) against four standard organism viz: Shigella dysentriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida valida and Pennicillum atrovenetum. The powdered leaves and stem bark were screened and results were properly recorded as observed. Extracts of the leaves and stem bark of the two species were also analyzed quantitatively for the following phytochemicals: Tannin, Alkaloid, Flavonoid, Terpenoid, Saponin and Phenols. Folin ciocalteu reagent was used to determine the total Phenolic content. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both plants had almost all phytochemical screened for. Quantitative analysis of bioactive components revealed that total phenols are also found in the extracts expressed as mg of GAE per gram. Results showed that the saponin content was the highest with about 47.13% shown in the stem bark extract of P. elata. This is followed by alkaloid with 39.40% in the leaf of P. laxiflora and 36.86% of flavonoid shown in the stem-bark of P.elata. Antimicrobial activity exhibited a concentration dependent profile as the extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against all the test microorganisms. The test organisms were most susceptible at concentration of 200 and 100mg/ml respectively and most resistant at low concentration. This study, however, supports the fact that Nigerian species of genus pericopsis contain important compounds which may be useful in medicine, it also suggests that further research should be conducted into the plant as a whole.
 Adaramola, T. F., Ariwaodo, J. O. and Adeniji, K. A. (2012). Distribution, Phytochemistry and Antioxidant Properties of the Genus Parkia R.Br. (Mimosaceae) in Nigeria. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research (IJPPR) 2012-13; 4(4); 172-178.
 Adebajo AO, Adewumi CO, Essein EE (1983). Anti-infective agent of higher plants. Int. Syrup Med Plants (5th edn.) University of Ife, Nigeria. pp. 152 – 158.
 Adeniji, K.A. and Ariwaodo, J.O. (2012). Comparative foliar epidermal studies of genus pericopsis (papilonaceae) in Nigeria. Phytologia Balcanica 18(1):37-41
 Ake-Assi L., (1988). Quelques plantes utilisées dans le traitement des maladies cardiaques en Côte d'Ivoire. Bull. Med. Trad., 2, 96-100.
 Akiyama, H., Fujii, K., Yamasaki, O., Oono, T. and Iwatsuki, K. (2001). Antibacterial action of several tannins against Staphylococcus aureus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother, 48 (4): 487-491.
 Alan, L. and Miller, N.D. (1996). Antioxidant flavonoids: structure, function and chemical usage. Alt. Med. Rev., 1:103-111.
 Banso A. (2009). Phytochemical and antibacterial investigation of bark extracts of Acacia nilotica. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 3(2), pp. 082-085
 Boham, A.B., Kocipai, D.C., (1994). Flavonoid and condensed tannins from leaves of Hawaiian Vaccininum vaticulum and vicalycilum. Pacific Science 48: 458 – 463.
 Burkill, H.M. (2000). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 5. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 296-297.
 Burkill, H.M. (1994). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa (2nd edition), vol. 2. Roy. Bot. Gard., Kew.
 CITES. (2003). Review of Significant Trade: Pericopsis elata, PC 14 Doc. 9.2.2: 77-92
 Dahms, K.G. (1999). Afrikanische Exporthölzer. Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Germany: DRW-Verlag Weinbrenner GmbH & Co. KG.
 Dickson, B., Mathew, P., Mickleburgh, S., Oldfield, S., Pouakouyou, D., Suter, J. (2005) An assessment of the conservation status, management and regulation of the trade in Pericopsis elata. Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, UK, p. 68
 Egwaikhide P.A and Gimba C.E (2007): Analysis of the phytochemical content and Antimicrobial activity of Plectranthus glandulosis whole plant middle – east Journal of Scientific Research.
 Ekpendu, T.O.E. West Afr. J. Pharmacol. Drug Res, 2003, 19: 1-4.
 Fluck H (1973). Medicinal Plants and their uses. W. Feulsham and Co. Ltd, New York. pp. 7 – 15.
 Forbes BA, Suhm DF, Wissfeld AS, (1998). Baily and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology. 10 th Edition, Mobsy. Inc., London.
 Harborne, J.B. (1973) Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of plant Analysis. Chapman & Hall Ltd, London, 278pp.
 Harborne, J.B. (1998). Phytochemical Methods. 3rd ed. Chapman & Hall Ltd, London.
 Harms, H. (1913). Leguminosae africanae VI. in Engler Botanische Jahrubucher XLIX (430)
 Holmgreen P.K; Keuken, W and Schafield E.K (1990). Index Harbariorum Part 1. The Herbaria of the World 8th ed. Reg. Veg. 120pp- Newyork.
 Howland, P. (1979) Pericopsis elata (Afrormosia). Commonwealth Forestry Institute Occasional Papers 9, Oxford.
 Kukachka B.F. (1960). Kokrodua – Afrormosia elata Harms, Leguminosae (Papilionaceae). Foreign Wood Series 1978. Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.
 Lu, L., Liu, S.W., Jiang, S.B. and Wu, S.G. (2004). Tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 25(2):213-218.
 Michael, A. (2006). A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.
 Obadoni, B.O. and Ochuko, P.O. (2001). Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some homostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. – Global J. Pure and Appl. Sci., 8b: 203-208.
 Okogun JI (2000). Methods of Medicinal Plant Extract Preparation. National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIIPRD). Idu – Abuja, Nigeria.
 Onyeka, E.U. and Nwambekwe, I.O. (2007). Phytochemical profile of some green leafy vegetables in South East, Nigeria; Nigerian Nigerian Food Journal, 25(1): 67-76.
 Ouattara A., Ouattara K., Coulibaly A. and Adima Amissa A.A. (2013). Phytochemical screening and evaluation of the antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Pericopsis (Afrormosia) laxiflora (Benth.) of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2013, 5(1):86-90
 Oyetayo V.O., Dong C.H., Yao, J., (2009). Antioxidant and Antimicrobial properties of igneous extract of Dctyophora industriata. The Open Mycologial Journal 3: 20-26.
 Perumal Samy R. and Ignacimuthu S. (2000). Antibacterial activity of some medicinal palnts from Ghats, South India. Solai Bull. Ethnopharmacol., 72; 39-41.
 Roja G., and Rao, P.S (2000). Anticancer compounds from tissue cultures of medicinal plant. J. Herbs spices Med. Plants 7: 71-102.
 Rojas, A. Herthan dez, L., Pereda-miranda, R and Mata R (1992). Screening of anti-microbial activity of crude drug extracts and pure natural products from Mexican medicinal plant. J. Ethnopharmacol,35: 275-283.
 Shi, J., Arunasalam, K., Yeung, D., Kakuda, Y., Mittal, G. and Jiang, Y. (2004). Saponins from edible legumes: Chemistry, processing and health benefits. J. Med. Food, 7:67-78.
 Singleton, V.L., Orthofer R.M., Lamuela-Raventos, (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin–Ciocalteu reagents. Methods in Enzymology 299: 152-178.
 Sofowora A. (1982). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in west Arica, John Wily and Sons. New York. 256.
 Sofowora, A. (1993). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd ed.. Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria.
 Soladoye M, O and Chukwuma E. C. (2012). Quantitative phytochemical profile of the leaves of Cissus populnea Guill. & Perr. (Vitaceae) – an important medicinal plant in central Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research, 2012, 4 (1):200-206
 Soladoye M.O and Lewis G.P (2003). A checklist of Nigerian legumes. CENRAD Natural Resources Research Assessment and Conservation Series 03, 141pp.
 Swaine, M.D. and Whitmore, T. (1988) On the definition of ecological species groups in tropical rain forests. Vegetatio 75: 81-86.
 Trease G.E. and Evans W.C. (1989) “Pharmacognosy” 14th Edn. W.B. Scandars Company, Ltd. London 269-300.
 Trease, G.E. and Evans, M.C. (2005). Pharmacognosy. 14th Edn., Elsevier, New Delhi, India, 53, 431, 512.
 UNESCO (1996). Culture and health Orientation texts World Decade for culture Development. 1991-1992, Document CLT/DEC/PRO – 1996, Paris France. 129.
 UNESCO (1998). FIT/504 – RAF -48. Terminal Report promotion of Ethnobotany and sustainable use of plant resources in Africa. Parris, 28.
 Valsaraj, R.O. pushpangadan, P. Smith, U.W., Adersen A. and Nyman, U. (1997). Antimicrobial screening of selected medicinal plants from india J. Ethnopharmacol., 58; 75-83.
 Van-Burden T, Robinson W. (1981) Formation of complexes between protein and Tannin acid. J. Agric. Food Chem; 1: 77
 Zheng, W. and Wang, S.Y., (2001). Antioxidant activity and Phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Agric food chem. 49: 5165-5170.