IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
0.2
2019CiteScore
 
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020

CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT

IJSTR >> Volume 6 - Issue 6, June 2017 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



Gender Dynamics During And Post The Lebanese Civil War 1975-1990 Through A Marxist Feminist Perspective

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Reham ElMorally

 

KEYWORDS

Lebanon, Civil War, Gender Dynamics, Marxist Feminism, Violence Against Women.

 

ABSTRACT

In the following paper I wish to investigate the status of women and their socio-economic conditions during the second civil war. As it was common during that period of time, the war was transferred to the womb of women, and sectarian conflicts during that time and even later usually involved “mudding” the blood of future generations of one sect. Therefore, I wish to examine whether this was the case in Lebanon. In order to do so, I will divide my paper into five sections. The first section of the paper will discuss the socio-economic background of the working class families of different sects in Lebanon. The second section of the paper will investigate the other means that were used during the war to weaken the Other, i.e. the focus will be directed at unarmed forms of violence. The third part of the paper will discuss the effects of the war, and more specifically it will focus on how women perceived, experienced, and the extent to which they were affected by the war. The fourth section will attempt to draw a comparative analysis in which the situation of women in Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, have been affected similarly during different conflicts at different locations and periods. The last part of the paper will attempt to draw some conclusions about the eruption of the war and whether its consequences still cause distress to Lebanese women today.

 

REFERENCES

[1]. Ardener, Shirley, “Ground Rules and Social Maps for Women: An Introduction”, in Women and Space: Ground Rules and Social Maps, Oxford: Berg (1993): 1-30.

[2]. Al-Masri, Khaled M. “Telling Stories of Pain:
Women Writing Gender, Sexuality and Violence in the Novel of the Lebanese Civil War”. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Michigan, (2010): 91-121.

[3]. Alef-Act for Human Rights. “Report On The Socio-Political And Cultural Contexts Of Violence & Their Impact On The Acceptance Of Torture In Lebanon”. Association Libanaise pour l’Education et la Formation, (May, 2011): 3-40.

[4]. Ann Fay, Mary. “Women and War in Lebanon”. Ed. Shehadeh, Lamia. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. (1999): 363-370.

[5]. Baydoun, Azza C. “Cases of Femicide before Lebanese Courts”. KAFAK: Enough Violence and Exploitation. (2011): 7-102.

[6]. Bratislava, Danuša ČIŽMÍKOVÁ. “Women’s Writings on the Lebanese Civil War”. Graecolatina Et Orientalia Bratislava, (2012): 145-160.

[7]. Cooke, Mariam. “Women Write War: The Centring of the Beirut Decentrists”. Centre for Lebanese Studies. July 1987: 3-22.

[8]. Gimenez, Martha, “Marxist Feminism/Materialist Feminism”, (USA: Virginia Tech University, 1998).

[9]. Hof, Frederic C. “Sectarian Violence in Syria’s Civil War: Causes, Consequences, and Recommendations for Mitigation”. The Center for the Prevention of Genocide, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (2012): 14-35.

[10]. Hudson, Michel C. “Letter from Beirut
”. Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, Vol. 18, No. 1 (July 1984): 1-8.

[11]. Holmstorm, Nancy,”Women’s Work, the Family and Capitalism”, Science and Society, issue no. 45 (1981).

[12]. Joseph, Suad “Working-Class Women's Networks in a Sectarian State: A Political Paradox”. American Ethnologist, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Feb., 1983): 1-22


[13]. Katib, Lina. “Gender, Citizenship and Political Agency in Lebanon
”. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3, Gender and Diversity in the Middle East and North Africa (Dec., 2008): 437-451.

[14]. Khattab, L., Myrittinen, H. “Gender, Security And Ssr In Lebanon”. Journal of International Alert, (Nov., 2014): 1-16.

[15]. Khalaf, Roseanne Saad. “Hikayat: Short stories by lebanese women”. London: Telegram. 2006: 101-200.

[16]. Khatib, Lina. “The voices of taboos: Women in Lebanese war cinema”. Women: A Cultural Review Vol 17, no.1 (2006): 65-77.

[17]. Khawaja, Bassam. “War and Memor: The Role of Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon”. Honors Project. Paper 13, (2011): 1-85.

[18]. Kothari, Uma, “Feminist and Postcolonial Challenges to Development”, in Critical Perspectives in Development Theory and Practice, ed. Kothari, U. & Minogue, M, (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2002): 35-51.

[19]. Kriedie, L. H., and Monroe, K. R. “Psychological Boundaries and Ethnic Conflict: How Identity Constrained Choice and Worked to Turn Ordinary People into Perpetrators of Ethnic Violence during the Lebanese Civil War”. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Fall, 2002): 5- 36.

[20]. Lawson, Fred H. “Syria's Intervention in the Lebanese Civil War, 1976: A Domestic Conflict Explanation” International Organization, Vol. 38, No. 3 (Summer, 1984): 451-480.

[21]. Lewis, Jona, “What is Feminism?”, About.com, February 2015, www.womenshistory.about.com, accessed 15th March 2016.

[22]. Makdisi, Samir, and Richard Sadaka, “The Lebanese Civil War 1975-1990”, Lecture and Working Paper Series, no. 3, Lebanon: The American University in Beirut, (2003): 9-52.

[23]. McKinnon, Cathrine A., “Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State: An Agenda for Theory”, Signs, Vol. 7, No. 3, Feminist Theory, (Spring, 1982): 515-544.

[24]. Nakkash, Rima. “Who Do They Think They Are Fooling?”. Tobacco Control, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Aug., 2008): 220.

[25]. Rasler, Karen. “A Comparative Analysis of Monadic and Dyadic Perspectives on the 1976 Lebanese Crisis”. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 4 (Dec., 1984): 427-446.

[26]. Shakir, Evelyn. “Remember me to lebanon: Stories of lebanese women in America”. 1st ed. Syracuse, N.Y: Syracuse University Press. (2007): 21-24.

[27]. Shehadeh, Lamia Rustum. “Women and war in lebanon”. Gainesville, Fla: University Press of Florida. (1999):

[28]. Tomeh, Aida K. “Birth Order and Alienation Among College Women in Lebanon”.
 Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, Women In The Family And Employment: A Cross-Cultural View (Spring 1978): 93-118.

[29]. UN Women, 2014, “Emma Watson: Gender equality is your issue too”, Herforshe.org. UN Women, 2014, www.herforshe.org, accessed 15th Arpil 2015

[30]. UNICEF. “Domestic Violence Against Women and Girls”. Innocent Digest, no.6. (June, 2000): 1-30.

[31]. Wehbi, Samantha. “Lebanese women disability rights activists: War-time experiences”. Women's Studies International Forum Vol. 33, no 5, (2010): 455-63.

[32]. Wright, Erik, “Explanation and Emancipation in Marxism and Feminism”, in Interrogating Inequality: Essay on Class Analysis, Socialism, and Marxism, (London: Verso, 1994): 1-12.

[33]. Zahar
, Marie-Joëlle. “Is All the News Bad News for Peace? Economic Agendas in the Lebanese Civil War”. International Journal, Vol. 56, No. 1 (Winter, 2000/2001): 115-128.