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IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 5, May 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

A Review On Neurodegenerative Diseases: Types, Pathology & Recent Advancement In Neurodegenerative Treatment

[Full Text]



Gomathi Kannayiram, Dhivya V, Raghavi Suresh, Prathiksha Prabhakar, Pooja Pushkarni P, Sandhya A



Alzheimer’s disease, β amyloid plaques, Dopaminergic neurons, Familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD), Induced pleuripotent stem cells (iPSCs), Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), Substantia nigra.



Neurodegenerative diseases are characterised by the progressive loss of selective population of neurons thereby breaking the synaptic circuit and these diseases are rapidly increasing in prevalence. The most common neurodegenerative diseases are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Often these diseases result in loss of memory, uncontrolled movements, lack of coordination, slurred speech and other body impairments. The brain is a complex organ made up of billions of cells on which we depend for proper functioning. Some of the most essential cells in the brain are called “Neurons” .These neurons communicate with each other to perform every function of the brain. .These neurons are interconnected and any miscommunication in one area can affect other activities of the brain leading to neural disordersThe death of the neurons in Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the accumulation of β amyloid plaques and tau protein extracellularly. In case of Huntington’s disease the expansion of CAG tri-nucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene is the cause. This review offers a brief introduction to neurodegenerative diseases and provides an overview of its types and pathology. It also touches upon the recent advancement in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review we have attempted to summarize the symptoms, pathology and treatment of three main neurodegenerative diseases namely; Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease , Huntington’s disease.



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