International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 5, May 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Breakthrough For Diagnosing Acute Renal Failure Using An Embedded System-Based Design Aided With Pragmatic Spectrophotometry

[Full Text]



S Sathyadeepa, T Sivakumar, E Murugan



Absorption coefficient, Creatinine, Chronic Kidney Disease, ESP 8266, Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), Renal diseases, Spectrophotometry.



In the modern era, non-communicable diseases are striking the highest rate of premature death worldwide. Apart from cardiovascular disease, diabetics, and hypertension, renal failure (kidney failure) is considered to have a high fatality rate. Creatinine is the waste produced from muscle metabolism which has to be removed from the blood by the kidney. Improper function of the kidney results in the accumulation of this waste in the blood. Embedded system-based design is developed to analyze the creatinine level present in serum and saliva samples. In this research, a standard solution is taken as the reference and with the help of this standard value, the samples are cross-checked. The sole objective of the prototype is to make an amalgamated instrument that helps in not only finding the value but also display them for future reference. The prototype consists of a source (LED), a casing, and a detector (photodiode). The wavelength of LED used in the model is appropriately chosen for the color of the solution. The light from the LED passes through the solution before it hits the detector. It also passes through the sides of the vessels holding the liquids. As more light is absorbed, less light passes through the solution, so the number of photons striking the photodiode varies, the current that gets induced is comparatively different for different light intensities that tend to fall on the photodiode. Finally, the output was processed by the controller and the corresponding values are calculated. The exact creatinine level can be mapped using the basic calculation which perfectly yields the value. Apart from that, the prototype involves IoT (Internet of Things) wherein the creatinine level of the subject with chronic kidney disease (CKD) along with other morbidity gets stored in the cloud using the Wi-fi module ESP-8266 and technicians can access these data anywhere and anytime across the globe.



[1]. Schulze A. Creatine deficiency syndromes. Mol Cell Biochem, vol. 50, pp. 244:143 , 2003.
[2]. Stromberger C, Bodamer OA, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S. “Clinical characteristics and diagnostic clues in inborn errors of creatine metabolism,” J Inherit Metab Dis, vol. 26, pp. 299 – 308, 2003
[3]. Jaffe´ M. “About the precipitate which picric acid produces in normal urine and about a new reaction of creatinine,” Z Physiol Chem, vol. 10, pp. 391 – 400, 1886.
[4]. Spencer K, “Analytical reviews in clinical biochemistry—the estimation of creatinine, ” Ann Clin Biochem, vol. 23, pp. 1 –25, 1986.
[5]. Narayanan S and Appleton HD, “Creatinine—a review,” Clin Chem, vol. 26 no. 11, pp. 19 – 26, 1980.
[6]. Larsen K, “Creatinine assay by a reaction-kinetic principle,” Clin Chim Acta, vol. 41, pp. 209 – 17, 1972.
[7]. Cook JGH, “Factors influencing the assay of creatinine, ” Ann Clin Biochem, vol. 19, pp. 219 – 32, 1975.
[8]. Wahlefeld AW, Siedel J. In: Bergmeyer HU, editor. “Methods in Enzymatic Analysis,” Weinheim Verlag Chemie; vol. 8, Third edition, pp, 488, 1985.
[9]. Fossati P, Prencipe L, Beti G. “Enzymatic creatinine assay: a new colorimetric method based on hydrogen peroxide measurement”, Clin Chem, vol. 29, pp. 1494 – 6, 1983.
[10]. Ambrose RT, Ketchum DF and Smith JW, “Creatinine determined by high-performance liquid-chromatography,” Clin Chem, vol. 29, pp, 256 – 9, 1983.
[11]. Avinash K and Nagaraj P, “Spectrophotometric assay of creatinine in human serum sample,” Arabian J Chm, vol. 10, pp. 2018-2024, 2017.
[12]. Patel C, George R. “Liquid chromatographic determination of creatinine in serum and urine,” Anal Chem, vol. 53: pp. 734 – 5, 1981.
[13]. Werner G, Schneider V, Emmert J. “Simultaneous determination of creatine, uric acid and creatinine by high-performance liquid chromatography with direct serum injection and multi- wavelength detection,” J Chromatogr, vol. 525, pp. 265 – 75, 1990.
[14]. Okuda T, Oie T, Nishida M, “Liquid-chromatographic measurement of creatinine in serum and urine,” Clin Chem, vol. 29, 851 – 3, 1983.
[15]. Paroni R, Arcelloni C, Fermo I, Bonini PA. “Determination of creatinine in serum and urine by a rapid liquid-chromato- graphic method,” Clin Chem, vol. 36, pp. 830 – 6, 1990.
[16]. Rosano TG, Ambrose RT, Wu AHB, Swift TA, Yadegari P. “Candidate reference method for determining creatinine in serum: method development and interlaboratory validation,” Clin Chem, vol. 36, pp. 1951 – 5, 1990
[17]. Linnet K, Bruunshuus I. HPLC with enzymatic detection as a candidate reference method for serum creatinine. Clin Chem vol. 37, pp. 1669 – 75, 1991.
[18]. Takatsu A, Nishi S, “Determination of serum creatinine by isotope dilution method using discharge-assisted thermospray liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry,” Biol Mass Spectrom, vol. 22, pp. 643 – 6, 1993.
[19]. Yasuda M, Sugahara K, Zhang J, Ageta T, Nakayama K, Shuin T, “Simultaneous determination of creatinine, creatine, and guanidinoacetic acid in human serum and urine using liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry,” Anal Biochem, vol. 253, pp. 231 – 5, 1997.
[20]. Gatti R, Lazzarotto V, De Palo CB, Cappellin E, Spinella P, De Palo EF. “A rapid urine creatinine assay by capillary zone electrophoresis,” Electrophoresis, vol. 20, pp. 2917 – 21, 1999
[21]. Tran TC, Huq TA, Kantes HL, Crane JN, Strein TG. “Determination of creatinine and other uremic toxins in human blood sera with micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis,” J Chromatogr, B, Biomed Sci Appl, vol. 690, pp. 35 – 42, 1997.
[22]. Kochansky CJ, Koziol S, Strein TG. “Electrophoretically mediated microanalysis with small molecules: the Jaffe´ method for creatinine carried out in a capillary tube,” Electrophoresis, vol. 22, pp. 2518 – 25, 2001.
[23]. Wang J, Chatrathi MP, “Microfabricated electrophoresis chip for bioassay of renal markers,” Anal Chem, vol. 75, pp. 525 – 9, 2003.
[24]. Welch MJ, Cohen A, Hertz HS “Determination of serum creatinine by isotope-dilution mass-spectrometry as a candidate definitive method”, Anal Chem, vol. 58, pp. 1681 – 5, 1986.
[25]. Chace DC, Kalas TA, Naylor EW. “Use of tandem mass spectrometry for multianalyte screening of dried blood specimens from new-borns,” Clin Chem, vol. 49, pp. 1797 – 817, 2003.
[26]. Meikle PJ, Fuller M, Hopwood JJ, “Mass spectrometry in the study of lysosomal storage disorders,” Cell Mol Biol (Noisy- le-grand), vol. 49, pp. 769 – 77, 2003.
[27]. Vogeser M. “Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry application in the clinical laboratory,” Clin Chem Lab Med, vol. 41, pp. 117 – 26, 2003.
[28]. Keevil BG, Tierney DP, Cooper DP, Morris MR, Machaal A, Yonan N. “Simultaneous and rapid analysis of cyclosporine A and creatinine in finger prick blood samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and its application in C2 monitoring” Ther Drug Monit, vol. 24, pp. 757 – 67, 2004.