International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us

IJSTR >> Volume 2- Issue 7, July 2013 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Investigation Into The Growth Phase Dependent Sensitivity Of Mycobacterium Aurum To Chlorine And Quantification Of Reactive Oxygen Species

[Full Text]



P. Radhika



Keywords: Mycobacterium aurum, Escherichia coli, Chlorination, Reactive oxygen species.



Abstract: Chlorination is one of the best known disinfectant methods for treating drinking water. Mycobacterium aurum and Escherichia coli are common waterborne organisms and as mycobacterial species are much resistant to reactive oxygen species, the initial effect H2O2 and HOCl was quantified in Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium aurum with the concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.16mM.The influence of reactive oxygen radicals with all the three growth phases like early log (3rd day in M.aurum and 3rd hour in E.coli), mid log (9th day and 9th hour) and early stationary phase (12th day and 12th hour) was checked and a correlation between the intracellular superoxide and hydroxyl with normalized change in CFU was expressed. The organism's susceptibility to H2O2 and HOCl was observed to be dependent on its growth phase. The possible reasons for their difference in resistance were analysed.



[1]. Helbling, D.E. and VanBriesen, J.M. (2007) Free chlorine demand and cell survival of microbial suspensions, Water Res, 41: 4424-4434.

[2]. Venkobachar, C., Iyengar, L., and Rao, A. Mechanism of disinfection: effect of chlorine on cell membrane functions. Water Res, 1977, 11: 727-729.

[3]. Virto, R., Alvarez, I., Condon, S., and Raso, J. Relationship between inactivation kinetics of a Listeria moncytogenes suspension by chlorine and its chlorine demand. J APPL MICROBIOL 2004, 97 1281-1288.

[4]. Virto, R., Manas, P., Alvarez, I., Condon, S., and Raso, J. (2005) Membrane Damage and Microbial Inactivation by Chlorine in the Absence and Presence of a Chlorine-Demanding Substrate. Appl Environ Microbiology 2005, 71 (9), 5022-5028.

[5]. Carson, LA.; Petersen, J. J.; Favero, M. S.; Aguero, S. M. Growth characteristics of atypical mycobacteria in water and their comparative resistance to disinfectants. Appl Environ Microbiol 1978, 36, 839-846.

[6]. Le Dantec, C., Duguet, J.P., Montiel, A., Dumoutier, N., Dubrou, S., and Vincent, V. Chlorine Disinfection of Atypical Mycobacteria Isolated From a Water Distribution System. Appl Environ Microbiology 2002, 68 (3), 1025-1032.

[7]. Keinanen, M.M., Korhonen, L.K., Lehtola, M.J., Miettinen, I.T., Martikainen, P.J., Vartiainen, T., and Suutari, M.H. The Microbial Community Structure of Drinking Water Biofilms Can Be Affected by Phosphorus Availability. Appl Environ Microbiology 2002, 68 (1), 434-439.

[8]. Schmeisser, C., Stockigt, C., Raasch, C., Wingender, J., Timmis, K.N., Wenderoth, D.F., Flemming, H.C., Liesegang, H., Schmitz, R.A., Jaeger, K.E., and Streit, W.R. Metagenome Survey of Biofilms in Drinking-Water Networks. Appl Environ Microbiology 2003, 69 (12), 7298-7309.

[9]. Eichler, S., Christen, R., Holtje, C., Westphal, P., Botel, J., Brettar, I., Mehling, A., and Hofle, M.G. (2006) Composition and Dynamics of Bacterial Communities of a Drinking Water Supply System as Assessed by RNA- and DNA-Based 16s Rrna Gene Fingerprinting. Appl Environ Microbiology 2006, 72 (3), 1858-1872.

[10]. Cloete, T.E. Resistance Mechanisms of Bacteria to Antimicrobial Compounds. Int BIODETER & BIODEGR 2003, 51 (4), 277-282.

[11]. Lisle, J.T., Broadaway, S.C., Prescott, A.M., Pyle, B.H., Fricker, C., and Mcfeters, G.A. Effects of Starvation on Physiological Activity and Chlorine Disinfection Resistance in Escherichia Coli O157 : H7. Appl Environ Microbiology 1998, 64 (12), 4658-4662.

[12]. Ryu, J.H. and Beuchat, L.R. Factors Affecting Production of Extracellular Carbohydrate Complexes by Escherichia Coli O157: H7. Int J Food Microbiol 2004, 95: 189-204.

[13]. ManjulaRao Y, Sureshkumar GK. Improvement in bioreactor productivities using free radicals: HOCl-induced overproduction of xanthan gum from Xanthomonas campestris and its mechanism. Biotechnol Bioeng 2001, 72:62–68..

[14]. Zweier JL. Measurement of superoxide-derived free radicals in the reperfused heart. J Biol Chem 1998; 263:1353–7.

[15]. Nakamura J, Purvis RE, Swenberg JA. Micromolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide induce oxidative DNA lesions more efficiently than millimolar concentrations in mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res 2003;31:1790–5.

[16]. Bull, Richard J. “Toxicology of Disinfection By-products.” In Safety of Water Disinfection: Balancing Chemical and Microbial Risks, edited by Gunther F. Craun. Washington, DC: ILSI Press, 1993.

[17]. Dukan S, Touati D. Hypochlorous acid stress in Escherichia coli: resistance, DNA damage and comparison with hydrogen peroxide stress. J Bacteriol 1996, 178:6145–6150.

[18]. Carson, L. A.; Cusick, L. B.; Bland, L. A.; Favero, M. S. Efficacy of chemical dosing methods for isolationg nontuberculous mycobacteria from water supplies of dialysis centers. Appl Environ Microbiology 1988, 54, 1756-1760.

[19]. Dowds BCA. The oxidative stress response in Bacillus subtilis. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1994;124:255–64.

[20]. Georgiou G. How to flip the (redox) switch. Cell 2002;111:607–10.[6] Storz G, Imlay A. Oxidative stress. Curr Opin Microbiol 1999; 2:188–94.

[21]. Horsburgh, C. R. Mycobacterium avium complex infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. New Engl. J. Med 1991, 324, 1332-1338.

[22]. Blackburn, B ; Craun, G ; Yoder, J., Hill, V., Calderon, R.,Chen, N., Lee, S., Levy, D., Beach, M., 2004. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with drinking water—United States, 2001–2002. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.53 (SS-08), 23–45.

[23]. Snoeyink, V and Jenkins, D. Water Chemistry (John Wiley Sons Inc), 1980, 215-318.

[24]. Sies H. Oxidative stress: oxidants and anti-oxidants.. New York: Academic Press; 1991.

[25]. Helmann JD, Winston MF, Gaballa A, Kobel PA, Morshedi MM,Fawcett P, et al. The global transcriptional response of Bacillus subtilis to peroxide stress is oordinated by three transcription factors.J Bacteriol 2003;185:243–53.

[26]. Luo Y, Han Z, Chin SM, Linn S. Three chemically distinct types of oxidants formed by iron-mediated Fenton reactions in the presence of DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91:12438–42.

[27]. Borg DC. Applications of electron spin resonance in biology. In: Pryor WA, editor. Free Radicals in Biology, Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press; 1976. p. 69–147.