International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us

IJSTR >> Volume 3- Issue 9, September 2014 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Bacteriological Evaluation Of Groundwater In Ekiti-State, Southwestern Nigeria.

[Full Text]



A. O. Talabi, A.K. Ogundana.



Keywords: Bacterial, coliform count, contaminated groundwater, pollutants, potability.



Abstract: Drinking contaminated groundwater can have serious health effects. Bacterial assessment of groundwater in Ekiti State was carried out to determine its potability and source(s) of pollutants. Consequently, 73 groundwater samples were collected for bacterial analysis and NO3- determination. At each location, depth of each well and depth to water table were measured using dipmeter. Temperature (°C), EC (µS/cm) and pH were measured in-situ using a multiparameter potable meter (model Testr-35). Subsequently, the bacteriological analysis was carried out using nutrient agar medium to obtain plate count of living bacteria (viable cell count) while Coliform count was achieved using a lactose medium inoculated with serial dilution of the sample. Nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in the groundwater were determined colorimetrically by Spectronic -20 (Gallenkamp, UK). In situ measurements revealed that pH ranged from 6.0 – 8.9 (av. 6.87), NO3- (mg/L) 1.2 to 19 (av. 6.86) mg/L while EC<1000µS/cm for all sampled groundwater. Virtually all samples tested positive to bacterial contamination with coliform count ranging from 0 - 8 (av. 2.15) cfu/100mL and total bacteria count (TBC) from 2 – 25 (av. 9.42) cfu/100ml. The groundwater in the study area is low mineralized fresh water. However, it has been polluted bacteriologically arising principally from surface phenomena of improper disposal of wastes and human faeces.



[1] Twas, Safe drinking water the need, the problem, solutions and action plan. 3rd world Academic of sciences, Italy, 8-12, 2002.

[2] I.R. Mather, Water resources distribution and uses (John wiley and 3rd edition 1984). 265-268

[3] P. Bongartz, S.M. Musyoki, A. Milligan, and H. Ashley, ‘Overview: Tales of Shit: Community-Led Total Sanitation in Africa’. Participatory Learning and Action, 2010, 61(1): 27-50.

[4] J K.Bartram, Charles, B. Evans, L. O’Hanlon, and S. Pedley, Commentary on community-led total sanitation and human rights: should the right to community-wide health be won at the cost of individual rights? Journal of Water and Health, 2012, 10(4): 499-503.

[5] I.O. Akindutire, and E. O. Alebiosu, Waste management strategies in Ado-Ekiti Metropolis of Ekiti State, Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 2013, vol.9, No.29, 269 – 276

[6] O.O. Fawole, T.A. Yekeen, A.A. Ayandele, A. Akinboro, M.A. Azeez, and S.O. Adewoye,Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial attributes and toxic effects on Allium cepa root cells. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2008, Vol. 7 (4), pp. 450-458,

[7] A.I. Awosusi, and O. Oriye, Waste Management and Enterprises Development in Slump Communities of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Mediteranean Journal of Social Sciences, 2012, Vol.3(11), 579 – 590

[8] B.D. Ako, and M.O. Olorunfemi, Geoelectric survey for groundwater in the Newer Basalts of Vom, Plateau State, Nig. Journal of Mining and Geology. 1989, Vol. 25. (1 and 2): pp. 247

[9] S. A. Alagbe, and B. A. Raji, Groundwater Resources of the basement complex in a semi arid region: a case study of the Kan Gimi River Basin, Kaduna State. In: proceedings of First Biennial National Hydrology Symposium; National Water Resources Publication, 1990, pp. 559-571. Maiduguri, Nigeria.

[10] Olorunfemi, M.O. and Fasuyi, A.S. Aquifer types and the geoelectric/hydrogeologic characteristics of the Basement terrain of Niger State, Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 1993, Vol. 16(3): pp. 309-317.

[11] O.L. Ademilua, and M.O. Olorunfemi Geoelectric/Geology estimation of the groundwater potential of the Basement Complex area of Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria.Journal of Technoscience. 2000, Vol. 4: pp. 4-20.

[12] A.O. Oyinloye, and O.L. Ademilua, The nature of aquifer in the crystalline basement rocks of Ado-Ekiti, Igede-Ekiti and Igbara- Odo areas, southwestern Nigeria. Pak.J. Sci. Ind. Res. 2005, Vol. 48(3): pp 154-161.

[13] O.S. Omotoyinbo, and F.C. Okafor, Influence of Rock Mineralogy on Subsurface Water in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. African Research Review Indexed African Journals Online: www.AJOL.info: 2008, pp. 175-186

[14] A.O. Talabi, and M.N. Tijani, Assessment of groundwater quality in parts of the basement complex terrain of southwestern Nigeria. GQ10: Groundwater Quality Management in a Rapidly Changing World (Proc. 7th International Groundwater Quality Conference held in Zurich, Switzerland, 13–18 June 2010). 2011, IAHS Publ 342.

[15] A.O. Talabi, and M.N. Tijani, Hydrochemical and stable isotopic characterization of shallow groundwater system in the crystalline basement terrain of Ekiti area, southwestern Nigeria. Appl Water Sci, 2013, 3:229-245.

[16] O.S. Omotoyinbo, Determination of the Level of Contamination of Underground Water (hand- dug well) by Organic Waste: A case Study of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Ethiopia Journ of Education and Sc, 2007, vol3 no1, P43-50

[17] A.T. Odeyemi, O.J. Akinjogunla, and M.A. Ojo, Bacteriological, Physicochemical and Mineral Studies of Water Samples from Artesian bore-hole, Spring and Hand dug Well located at Oke-Osun, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria. Scholars Research Library Archives of Applied Science Research, 2011, 3 (3):94-108

[18] O. S. Ayodele, and A. O. Aturamu, Potability status of hand dug wells in Ekiti State, South western Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology. 2011, Vol.1, No.2, pp.102-109.

[19] A. O. Aturamu, Physical, Chemical and Bacterial Analyses of Groundwater in Ikere Township, South western Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology. 2012, Vol.2, No.5, pp.301-308.

[20] O. Ajayi, and O. O. Abegunrin, Causes of borehole failures in the crystalline rock of southwestern Nigeria. In proceedings of first Biennial National Hydrology Symposium, 1990, pp. 466-490. National Water Resources Publication, Maiduguri,

[21] AOAC,.Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Wash. DC. , 1990, 15th edn,

[22] R.A. Freeze, and J.A. Cherry, 1979, Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ USA.

[23] World Health Organization (WHO), 2004, Guidelines for drinking water quality, vol 1, 3rd edn. Recommendations WHO, Geneva.

[24] USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), 1986, Quality criteria for water. Office of water Regulation and standards, Washington DC, usepa-40015-86-256 pp. Secondary Drinking Water Regulation; Synthetic Organic Chemicals and Inorganic Chemicals. Federal Register.Vol. 55. No. 143. 30370.

[25] Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), 1991, Water Quality, Federal Water Standards, Guideline and Standard for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, National Environmental Standards- Part 2 and 3, Government Press, Lagos p. 238.

[26] G.O. Adeyemi, A.O. Adesile, and O.M. Obayomi, Chemical characteristics of some well waters in Ikire, Southwestern Nigeria. Water Resources Journal of the Nigerian Association of Hydrogeologists (NAH), 2003, Vol. 14, pp. 12-18.

[27] R.L. Mahler, A. Colter, and R. Hirnyck, Nitrate and groundwater, Quality Water for Idaho. University of Idaho, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, 2007, CIS 872, p1-4.

[28] B.C. Kross, G.R. Hallberg, R. Bruner, K. Cherryholmes, and K. J. Johnson, The Nitrate Contamination of Private Well Water in Iowa, American Journal of Public Health, 1993, v. 83, p. 270-272.