IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
0.2
2019CiteScore
 
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020

CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT

IJSTR >> Volume 8 - Issue 8, August 2019 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



Extension Services And Behavioral Strategies Of Farmers To Deal With Risk

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Zahra Ranjbar, Mohammad Chizari, Hasan Sadighi, Homayoun Farhadian

 

KEYWORDS

Climate, Coping strategies, Extension services, Wheat.

 

ABSTRACT

Agriculture is considered a critical sector in the world economy while the nature of the agricultural activities is mainly based on the risk, implying the need for more attention to risk management. In this regard, it is important to consider the role of educational programs and how farmers react to risk. The purpose of this survey research was to explore the role of extension services on strategies for coping with wheat production risks among farmers in Kermanshah province, Iran. The target research population consisted of all wheat producers in Kermanshah province who cultivated wheat in 2016-2017 (N=102000). A stratified random sampling method was used to select and interview 383 farmers in six districts of Kermanshah (n= 383). The reliability of different parts was estimated in a pilot study to be in the range of 0.73-0.94. The results highlighted 35 strategies that significantly influenced risk. Out of 35 adaptation strategies, the use of disinfected seeds was ranked the first among farm adaptive measures, while cooperative cultivation was ranked as the least frequently utilized. Despite the rather low use of the extension services by farmers, there was a positive significant relationship between the coping strategies and extension services. The results provide useful insights for researchers, extension agents, and farmers.

 

REFERENCES

[1] Abebe, G. K., Bijman, J., Pascucci, S., and Omta, O. Adoption of improved potato varieties in Ethiopia: The role of agricultural knowledge and innovation system and smallholder farmers’ quality assessment. Agricultural Systems, (122): 22–32. 2013.
[2] Agricultural Organization of Kermanshah Province. Agricultural profile of Kermanshah province. Available at: http://www.kermanshah.agri-jahad.ir/HomePage.aspx?TabID=4213& Site=DouranPortal&Lang=fa-IR . 2015.
[3] Akcaoz, H., & Ozkan, B. Determining risk sources and strategies among farmers of contrasting risk awareness: A case study for Cukurova region of Turkey. Journal of Arid Environments, 62 (4), 661-675. 2005.
[4] Amirkhani, S., Chizari, M. Factors influencing on drought management in Varamin Township. Third Congress of Agricultural Extension and Education, Mashhad, Iran, 107-118. 2010.
[5] Anderson, K. B. and Mapp, H. P. Risk management programs in Extension. Journal of Resource Economiccs. 21 (1): 31-38. 1996.
[6] Anto´n, J., Cattaneo, A., Kimura, Sh., & Lankoski, J. Agricultural risk management policies under climate uncertainty. Global Environmental Change (23), 1726–1736. 2013.
[7] Bader, T. M. Managing risk on the Gresham 80. FFASAE, Risk Management Essay. 2009.
[8] Bahrami, A., and Aghahi, H. Risk management in agricultural farms. economic, education and news Monthly, Green Land. 4 (39): 32-36. (In Persian). 2006.
[9] Baloch, M. A., and Thapa, G. B. The effect of agricultural extension services: Date farmers’ case in Balochistan, Pakistan. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 17, 282–289. 2018.
[10] Bard, S. K., and Barry, P. J. Assessing Farmers' Attitudes Toward Risk Using the "Closing-in" Method. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 26(1):248-260. 2001.Castañeda-Vera, A. and Garrido, A. Evaluation of risk management tools for stabilising farm income under CAP 2017-2020. Economía Agraria y Recursos Naturales 17(1): 3-23. 2017.
[11] Dadzie, S. K. N. and Acquah, H. G. Attitudes Toward Risk and Coping esponses:The Case of Food Crop Farmers at Agona Duakwa in Agona East District of Ghana. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2012, 2(2): 29-37 . 2012.
[12] Davis, K., and Sulaiman, R. Extension Services for Effective Agricultural Risk Management. Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services (GFRAS). 2013.
[13] Ellis, F. ‘The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries’, Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 51. 2000.
[14] Foster, T., Brozović, N., & Butler, A. P. Why well yield matters for managing agricultural drought risk. Weather and Climate Extremes (10), 11–19. 2015.
[15] Francis, J. A. Risk Management and Agricultural Extension – A Time for Change? 2012.
[16] Gomez-Limon, J. A., Riesgo, L., Arriaza B. M. "Agricultural Risk Aversion Revisited: A Multicriteria Decision-Making Approach," 2002 International Congress, August 28-31, 2002, Zaragoza, Spain 24827, European Association of Agricultural Economists. 2002.
[17] Gunduz, O., Ceyhan, V., Aslan, A., and Bayramoglu, Z. Determinants of farmers’ risk aversion in apricot production in turkey. International Journal of Management and Applied Science, 2(9), 149-155. 2016.
[18] Hansen, J., Hellin, J., Rosenstock, T., Fisher, E., Cairns, J., Stirling, C., Lamanna., C., Etten, J. V., Rose, A., and Campbell, B. Climate risk management and rural poverty reduction. Agricultural Systems xxx (xxxx) xxx–xxx. 2018.
[19] Hashemi, M., Hosseini, M. and Damalas.C. A. Farmers’ competence and training needs on pest management practices:Participation in extension workshops. Crop Protection, (28): 934–939.2009.
[20] Irwin, A., & Poots, J. The human factor in agriculture: An interview study to identify farmers’ non-technical skills. Safety Science (74), 114–121. 2015.
[21] Jain, R. C. A., and Parshad, M. Report of the working group on risk management in agriculture. for the eleventh five year plan (2007-2012). Government of India Planning Commission. New Delhi. 2012.
[22] Jankelova, N., Masar, D., & Moricova, S. Risk factors in the agriculture sector. Agric. Econ. – Czech, 63 (6), 247–258. 2017.
[23] Janowicz-Lomott, M. & Łyskawa, K. The new instruments of risk management in agriculture in the European Union. Procedia Economics and Finance (9), 321– 330. 2014.
[24] Javadzadeh-amini. The Importance of Risk Management in Insurance and Examining the Performance of Agricultural Crop Insurance in Kermanshah Province during the Second Five-Year Plan of Economic, Social and Cultural Development of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Master's Thesis, Kermanshah State Management Center (In Persian). 2004.
[25] Kahan, D. Managing risk in farming/ farm management extension guide. Rural Infrastructure and Agro-Industries Division Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations Vialedelle Terme dicaracalla. Rome, Italy. (153), 38-75. 2008.
[26] Kgakatsi, I. B. & Rautenbach, C. J. W. The contribution of seasonal climate forecasts to the management of agricultural disaster-risk in South Africa. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (8), 100–113. 2014.
[27] Meuwissen, M. P. M., Huirne, R. B. M., and Hardaker, J.B. Risk and risk management: an empirical analysis of Dutch livestock farmers. Livestock Production Science. 69(1): 43-53. 2001.
[28] Miller, A., Dobbins, C., Pritchett, J., Boehlije, M. & Ehmke, C. Risk Management for farmers. Staff pape. 4.11. Department of Agricultural Economics Purdue University. 2004.
[29] Munyua, H. M., and Stilwell, C. Three ways of knowing: Agricultural knowledge systems of small-scale farmers in Africa with reference to Kenya (2013). Library & Information Science Research 35: 326–337. 2013.
[30] Owusu-acheampong, j. micro-finance evangelism, ‘destitute women’, and the hard selling of a new antipoverty formula. development in practice 6(2). 1996.
[31] Riwthong, S., Schreinemachers, P., Berger, T. & Grovermann, Ch. Agricultural commercialization: Risk perceptions, risk management and the role of pesticides in Thailand. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, xxx (2016), 1-9. 2016.
[32] Saqib, S. E., Ahmad, M. M., Panezai, S., & Ali, U. Factors influencing farmers' adoption of agricultural credit as a risk management strategy: The case of Pakistan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 17: 67–76. 2016.
[33] Shannon, H., & Motha, R.P. Managing weather and climate risks to agriculture in North America, Central America and the Caribbean. Weather and Climate Extremes, (10), 50–56. 2015.
[34] Shortreed, J., Hicks, J. and Craig, L. Basic framework for risk management, The Ontario ministry of the environment Network for Environmental risk management (NERM). 7: 74. 2003.
[35] Statistical Center of Iran . Detailed results of the General Census of Agriculture. available at: https://www.amar.org.ir. 2016.
[36] Sulewski, P., & Kłoczko-Gajewska, A. Farmers’ risk perception, risk aversion and strategies to cope with production risk: an empirical study from Poland. Studies in Agricultural Economics (116), 140-147. 2014.
[37] Tiraee yari, N. The study of effective personalizing factor on moderuization in the acceptance of agricultural products assurance by khozestan province. Unpublished M.SC. Thesis of Agricaltural Extension and Education College of Agriculture Tarbiyat Modares University (in Persian). 2002.
[38] Uddin, M. N., Bokelmann, W., Entsminger, J. S. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects:A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh. Climate, 2, 223-241. 2014.
[39] Ullah, R., Shivakoti, G. P., & Ali, GH. Factors effecting farmers’ risk attitude and risk perceptions: The case of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (13), 151–157. 2015.
[40] Van Winsen, F. Rethinking farmers’ intended risk behavior: The role of risk perception, risk attitude and decision context. Doctoral dissertation, Ghent University. 2014.
[41] Zivković, D., Jelic, S., Rajic, Z. Agricultural extension service in the function of rural development. Paper prepared for presentation at the 113th EAAE Seminar “the role of knowledge, innovation and human capital in multifunctional agriculture and territorial rural development”, Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. December 9-11, 2009.