International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 4 - Issue 8, August 2015 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Radicalization In Pakistan And The Spread Of Radical Islam In Pakistan

[Full Text]



Bahir ahmad





ABSTRACT: It is pertinent to mention that radicalism is not intrinsic to Islam and radical interpretations of the religion or for that matter may occur within any way of life and religion (Saikal, 2003), and yet, the question remains as to why Muslims in certain geographical regions have more radical approaches towards their religion and also that what are the causes of such radicalization. Becoming a radical Muslim is not even a matter of a day nor is it a sudden process. There are several reasons behind making a person radical, peaceful, angry, smiling or tolerant. For knowing the reason behind radicalization or radicals persons, one has to understand the causes. Tracing these causes is one of the ways to eliminate such behavior. The first step in the elimination of the radical sentiments in a person is to develop peace in his personality, (Fair, Malhotra, & Shapiro, 2010). The chapter, which has been addressed here, is going to shed light on the roots and symptoms of the radicalism. There will be a brief discussion on how the roots of radicalism can be traced and can be eliminated. The assessment and discussion will be conducted on the parameters of the economy, media, politics, and theology from social cultural point of view. According to the analysis of Ahrari, (2000), political factor is one of the major and direct factors which have resulted in causing of the radicalism. These factors however intertwine with one another. Radical actions cannot take place only because of the political factors.



[1] Ahrari, M. E. (2000). China, Pakistan, and the" Taliban Syndrome". Asian Survey, 658-671. Saikal, A. (2003). Islam and the West. Islamic Perspectives, 19.

[2] Nasr, V. R. (2000). International Politics, Domestic Imperatives, and Identity Mobilization: Sectarianism in Pakistan, 1979-1998. Comparative Politics, 171-190.

[3] Nasr, V. (2004). Military rule, Islamism and democracy in Pakistan. The Middle East Journal, 58 (2), 195-209.

[4] Afsaruddin, A. (2008). The first Muslims: History and memory. Oxford, England: One World. Pohl, F. (2006). Islamic education and civil society: Reflections on the Pesantren tradition in contemporary Indonesia. Comparative Education Review, 50, 389-409.

[5] Fair, C. C. (2007). Militant recruitment in Pakistan: A new look at the militancy-madrassah connection. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace Press.

[6] Fair, C. C. (2008). The madrassah challenge: Militancy and religious education in Pakistan. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace Press

[7] Fair, C. C., Malhotra, N., & Shapiro, J. N. (2010). Islam, militancy, and politics in Pakistan: Insights from a national sample. Terrorism and Political Violence, 22 (4), 495-521. Chellaney, B. (2006). Fighting terrorism in Southern Asia: the lessons of history.

[8] Roy, O. (2002). The Taliban: A strategic tool for Pakistan. Pakistan–Nationalism without a Nation, 149-160. Subramaniam, A., Spear, J., Vucetic, S., Chadha, V., Bhaskar, C. U., Gupta, A. & Subrahmanyam, K. (2013). Contributions Published in Strategic Analysis in 2013.

[9] International Relations, 37 (6). Tellis, A. J. (2004). US strategy: Assisting Pakistan's transformation. Washington Quarterly, 28 (1), 97-116.

[10] Woodward, M., Romania, I., Amin, A., & Coleman, D. (2010). Muslim education, celebrating Islam and having fun as counter-radicalization strategies in Indonesia. Perspectives on Terrorism, 4 (4).

[11] Atran, S. (2010). Who Becomes a Terrorist Today? Perspectives on Terrorism, 2 (5). Jaffrelot, C. (Ed.). (2002). Pakistan: nationalism without a nation. Zed Books. Biloslavo, F. Pakistan: the Threat of Islamic Radicalism.

[12] Kalra, V. S., & Butt, W. M. (2013). ‘On one hand a pen in the other a gun’: Punjabi language radicalism in.

[13] De Marchi, N., & Blaug, M. (Eds.). (1991). appraising economic theories: studies in the methodology of research programs. E. Elgar.

[14] Hovland, C. I., Lumsdaine, A. A., & Sheffield, F. D. (1949). Experiments on mass communication, Vol. 3

[15] Reinharz, S., & David man, L. (1992). Feminist methods in social research. Oxford University Press.

[16] Zahab, M. A. (2002). The regional dimension of sectarian conflicts in Pakistan. Pakistan: Nationalism without a nation, 115-128.

[17] Yusuf, M. (2008). Prospects of Youth Radicalization in Pakistan: Implications for US Policy. Saban Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution.

[18] Kirby, A. (2007). The London bombers as “self-starters”: A case study in indigenous radicalization and the emergence of autonomous cliques. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30 (5), 415-428.

[19] Altman, D., Burton, N., Cuthill, I., Festing, M., Hutton, J., & Playle, L. (2006). Why does a pilot study? National Center for the Replacement, Retirement and Reduction of Animals in Research. Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods, 18, 55-82.

[20] Kean, T. H., & Hamilton, L. H. (2004). The 9/11 report: National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon United States. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press.

[21] Diagonal, D. S. (2004). Secular and Islamic education in the ARMM— Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. Retrieved from http://www.kas.de/db_files/dokumente/7_dokument_dok _pdf_5190_2.pdf.

[22] Jaffrelot, C. (Ed.). (2002). Pakistan: nationalism without a nation. Zed Books.