International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 8 - Issue 8, August 2019 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Camera & Sensors-Based Assistive Devices For Visually Impaired Persons: A Systematic Review

[Full Text]



Preetjot Kaur, Roopali Garg



Assistive systems, Computer Vision, Camera-Based, Obstacle Detection, Sensors-Based,Visually Impaired;



Assistive Technology has led to the removal of numerous navigation barriers for visually impaired individuals. It promotes more freedom by empowering such people to perform tasks that were formerly challenging, such as Obstacle Detection, indoor/outdoor Navigation, finding lost objects etc., with more ease. This paper provides a wider scope for researchers in the field of Obstacle detection for blind/partially sighted persons. This paper discusses several techniques contributed by numerous researchers to serve this purpose. These techniques are reviewed and categorized according to the criteria of taking visual information and then the research gaps in those techniques have been detailed. The critical challenges faced by visually impaired users in using Assistive systems based on smartphones, IoT devices, sensors, etc have been discussed along with future directions. In this paper the advancements and research done in this field is surveyed. Further, the various research gaps are included.



[1] Whitmarsh, L. "The Benefits of Guide Dog Ownership." (2005): 27-42.
[2] "Dogs Monthly." Great British Dog Survey 2016: 1-28.
[3] What Type of Cane Should I Use?" n.d. American Foundation for the Blind: Leading the Vision Loss Community. [Online] http://www.visionaware.org/info/everyday-living/essential-skills.
[4] Eugene A. Bourquin, Robert Wall Emerson, Dona Sauerburger, and Janet Barlow. "The Effect of the Color of a Long Cane Used by Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired on the Yielding Behavior of Drivers." Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (2017): 401-410.
[5] Do Ngoc Hung, Vo Minh-Thanh, Nguyen Minh-Triet, Quoc Luong Huy, Viet Trinh Cuong. "Design and Implementation of Smart Cane for Visually Impaired People." 6th International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam (BME6). Vietnam: Springer, Singapore, 2017. 249-254.
[6] Sung Yeon Kim, Ki Joon Kim, S. Shyam Sundar, Frank Biocca. "Electronic Cane for Visually Impaired Persons: Empirical Examination of Its Usability and Effectiveness." Human Centric Technology and Service in Smart Space (2012): 71-76.
[7] Kozak, Roman. "“Virtual Cane” for the Blind, Powered by Arduino and Android." 2014. www.romanakozak.com. [Online] https://www.romanakozak.com/virtual-cane/
[8] Sonda Ammar Bouhamed, Jihen Frikha Eleuch, Imen Khanfir Kallel. "New electronic cane for visually impaired people for obstacle detection and recognition." IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES 2012). Istanbul, Turkey: IEEE, 2012.
[9] VARSHINI, G.PRIYA. "SMART MOBILITY STICK." International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 6.10 (2015): 89-94.
[10] Rupert R A Bourne*, Seth R Flaxman*, Tasanee Braithwaite, Maria V Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Jost B Jonas, Jill Keeffe, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher,Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Serge Resnikoff, Alex Silvester, Gretchen A Stevens, Nina Tahhan,. "Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis." The Lancet Global Health 5.9 (2017): e888-e897.
[11] Kirsty Williamson, Steve Wright, Don Schauder, Amanda Bow. "The Internet for the Blind and Visually Impaired." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 7.1 (2001).
[12] Tella Adeyinka, James Abedayo Ayeni, and Olukemi Titilola Oleniyi. "Assessment of Information Seeking Behaviour of Physically Challenged Students in Selected Nigerian Tertiary Institutions." Journal of Balkan Libraries Union 5.2 (2017): 24-33.
[13] Kirsty Williamson, Don Schauder, Louise Stockfield, Steve Wright & Amanda Bow. "The role of the internet for people with disabilities: issues of access and equity for public libraries." The Australian Library Journal (2001): 157-174.
[14] Winkler, Timo Götzelmann and Klaus. "SmartTactMaps: a smartphone-based approach to support blind persons in exploring tactile maps." PETRA '15 Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments. Corfu, Greece: ACM, 2015.
[15] Nicoletta Noceti, Luca Giuliani, Joan Sosa-Garciá, Luca Brayda, Andrea Trucco, Francesca Odone. "Designing audio-visual tools to support multisensory disabilities." Recognition, Computer Vision and Pattern. Multimodal Behaviour Analysis in the Wild. Academic Press Elsevier, 2019. 79-102.
[16] Dr.P.C.Jain, K.P.Vijaygopalan. RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks. CDAC Noida: Proceedings of ASCNT, 2010.
[17] Domingo, Mari Carmen. "An overview of the Internet of Things for people with disabilities." Journal of Network and Computer Applications 35 (2011): 584-596.
[18] Alberto Rodríguez, J. Javier Yebes, Pablo F. Alcantarilla, Luis M. Bergasa, Javier Almazán and Andrés Cela. "Assisting the Visually Impaired: Obstacle Detection and Warning System by Acoustic Feedback." SENSORS New Trends towards Automatic Vehicle Control and Perception –Systems (2012): 17476-17496.
[19] Senem Kursun Bahadir, Vladan Koncar, Fatma Kalaoglu. "Wearable obstacle detection system fully integrated to textile structures for visually impaired people." Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 179 (2012): 297-311.
[20] Adriano Mancini, Emanuele Frontoni, Primo Zingaretti,. "Mechatronic System to Help Visually Impaired Users During Walking and Running." IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 19.2 (2018): 649 - 660.
[21] Bogdan Mocanu, Ruxandra Tapu, Titus Zaharia. "DEEP-SEE FACE: A Mobile Face Recognition System Dedicated to Visually Impaired People." IEEE Access 6 (2018): 51975 - 51985.
[22] Nawin Somyat, Teepakorn Wongsansukjaroen, Wuttinan Longjaroen, Songyot Nakariyakul. "NavTU: Android Navigation App for Thai People with Visual Impairments." 2018 10th International Conference on Knowledge and Smart Technology (KST). Chiang Mai, Thailand: IEEE, 2018.
[23] A. Jindal, N. Aggarwal, S. Gupta. "An Obstacle Detection Method for Visually Impaired Persons by Ground Plane Removal Using Speeded-Up Robust Features and Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix." Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis 28.2 (2018): 288-300.
[24] Simon Meers, Koren Ward. "A Vision System for Providing 3D Perception of the Environment via Transcutaneous Electro-Neural Stimulation." Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV’04). IEEE, 2004.
[25] Yueng Delahoz, Miguel A. Labrador. "A Real-Time Smartphone-Based Floor Detection System For The Visually Impaired." 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA). Rochester, MN, USA: IEEE, 2017.
[26] Ruxandra Tapu, Bogdan Mocanu, Titus Zaharia. "DEEP-SEE: Joint Object Detection, Tracking and Recognition with Application to Visually Impaired Navigational Assistance." Sensors 17.11 (2017).
[27] Rumin Zhang, Wenyi Wang, Liaoyuan Zeng, Jianwen Chen. "A Real-Time Obstacle Detection Algorithm for the Visually Impaired Using Binocular Camera." 2017 International Conference in Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems. Springer, Singapore, 2018. 1412-1419.
[28] Kang, Mun-Cheon, et al. "An enhanced obstacle avoidance method for the visually impaired using deformable grid." IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 63.2 (2017): 169 - 177.
[29] He Zhang, Cang Ye. "An Indoor Wayfinding System based on Geometric Features Aided Graph SLAM for the Visually Impaired." IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 25.9 (2017): 1592 - 1604.
[30] Kin Leong Ho, Paul Newman. "Loop closure detection in SLAM by combining visual and spatial appearance." Robotics and Autonomous Systems 54.9 (2006): 740-749.
[31] Trung-Kien Dao, Thanh-Hai Tran, Thi-Lan Le, Hai Vu, Viet-Tung Nguyen, Dang-Khoa Mac, Ngoc-Diep Do, Thanh-Thuy Pham. "Indoor navigation assistance system for visually impaired people using multimodal technologies." 14th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARCV). Phuket, Thailand: IEEE, 2016.
[32] Kit Yan Chan, Ulrich Engelke, Nimsiri Abhayasinghe. "An edge detection framework conjoining with IMU data for assisting indoor navigation of visually impaired persons." Expert Systems With Applications (2016).
[33] Gaurav Kumar, Pradeep Kumar Bhatia. "A Detailed Review of Feature Extraction in Image Processing Systems." Fourth International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies. Rohtak, India: IEEE, 2014.
[34] Shoroog Khenkar, Hanan Alsulaiman, Shahad Ismail, Alaa Fairaq, Salma Kammoun Jarraya, and Hanêne Ben-Abdallah. "ENVISION: Assisted Navigation of Visually Impaired Smartphone Users." Procedia Computer Science (2016): 128-135.
[35] Mohane, Vikky and Chetan Gode. "Object recognition for blind people using portable camera." World Conference on Futuristic Trends in Research and Innovation for Social Welfare (Startup Conclave). Coimbatore, India: IEEE, 2016.
[36] Aravinda S. Rao, Jayavardhana Gubbi, Marimuthu Palaniswami and Elaine Wong. "A vision-based system to detect potholes and uneven surfaces for assisting blind people." IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: IEEE, 2016.
[37] Lukas Everding, Lennart Walger, Viviane S. Ghaderi, and Jorg Conradt. "A Mobility Device for the Blind with Improved vertical resolution using dynamic vision sensors." IEEE 18th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom). Munich, Germany: IEEE, 2015.
[38] R. TAPU, B. MOCANU and T. ZAHARIA. "Real time static/dynamic obstacle detection for visually impaired persons." 2014 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). Las Vegas, NV, USA: IEEE, 2014. 394-395.
[39] R. Gnana Praveen, Roy P Paily. "Blind Navigation Assistance for Visually Impaired Based on Local Depth Hypothesis from a Single Image." International Conference on DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING, IConDM 2013. ELSEVIER, 2013. 351 – 360.
[40] Ruxandra Tapu, Bogdan Mocanu, Andrei Bursuc, Titus Zaharia. "A Smartphone-Based Obstacle Detection and Classification System for Assisting Visually Impaired People." International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops. Sydney, NSW, Australia: IEEE, 2013. 444-451.
[41] Ali Israr, Olivier Bau, Seung-Chan Kim, Ivan Poupyrev. "Tactile feedback on flat surfaces for the visually impaired." CHI EA '12 CHI '12 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Austin, Texas, USA: ACM New York, NY, USA ©2012, 2012. 1571-1576.
[42] Lee, Chia-Hsiang, Yu-Chi Su and Liang-Gee Chen. "An intelligent depth-based obstacle detection system for visually-impaired aid applications." 13th International Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services. Dublin, Ireland: IEEE, 2012.
[43] D. K. Liyanage, M. U. S. Perera. "Optical flow based obstacle avoidance for the visually impaired." 2012 IEEE Business, Engineering & Industrial Applications Colloquium (BEIAC). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: IEEE, 2012. 284-289.
[44] Saeid Fazli, Hajar Mohammadi Dehnavi, Payman Moallem. "A robust negative obstacle detection method using seed-growing and dynamic programming for visually-impaired/blind persons." Optical Review 18.6 (2011): 415–422.
[45] Chieh-Li Chen, Yan-Fa Liao, Chung-Li Tai. "Image-to-MIDI mapping based on dynamic fuzzy color segmentation for visually impaired people." Pattern Recognition Letters 32.4 (2014): 549-560.
[46] Paulo Costa, Hugo Fernandes, Verónica Vasconcelos, Paulo Coelho, oão BarrosoLeontios Hadjileontiadis. "Landmarks Detection to Assist the Navigation of Visually Impaired People." Human-Computer Interaction. Towards Mobile and Intelligent Interaction Environments 6763 (2011): 293-300.
[47] En Peng, Patrick Peursum, Ling Li & Svetha Venkatesh. "A Smartphone-Based Obstacle Sensor for the Visually Impaired." International Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010. 590-604.
[48] NUR SYAZREEN AHMAD, NG LAI BOON and PATRICK GOH. "Challenged, Multi-Sensor Obstacle Detection System Via Model-Based State-Feedback Control in Smart Cane Design for the Visually." IEEE Access. vol. 6 (2018): 64182-64192.
[49] Robert K. Katzschmann, Brandon Araki, Daniela Rus. "Safe Local Navigation for Visually Impaired Users With a Time-of-Flight and Haptic Feedback Device." IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 26.3 (2018): 583 - 593.
[50] Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Souraj Vishnu, Vishnu Sasikumar, Sajikumar Sreekumar. "Autonomous Path Guiding Robot for Visually Impaired People." Cognitive Informatics and Soft Computing.Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing,. Springer, Singapore, August 2018. 257-266.
[51] Gonzalo Baez, Pablo Prieto and Fernando A Auat Cheein. "3D vision-based handheld system for visually impaired people: preliminary results on echo-localization using structured light sensors." Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express 4.4 (2018).
[52] Nabila Shahnaz Khan, Shusmoy Kundu, Sazid Al Ahsan, Moumita Sarker, Muhammad Nazrul Islam. "An Assistive System of Walking for Visually Impaired." 4th International Conference on Computer, Communication, Chemical, Material and Electronic Engineering (IC4ME2-2018). Bangladesh: IEEE, 2018.
[53] Tayla Froneman, Dawie van den Heever, Kiran Dellimore. "Development of a wearable support system to aid the visually impaired in independent mobilization and navigation." 2017 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC). Seogwipo, South Korea: IEEE, 2017.
[54] Van-Nam Hoang, Thanh-Huong Nguyen, Thi-Lan Le, Thanh-Hai Tran, Tan-Phu Vuong, Nicolas Vuillerme. "Obstacle detection and warning system for visually impaired people based on electrode matrix and mobile Kinect." Vietnam Journal of Computer Science 4.2 (2017): 71-83.
[55] Shahu, Desar, et al. "A low-cost mobility monitoring system for visually impaired users." International Conference on Smart Systems and Technologies (SST). Osijek, Croatia: IEEE, 2017.
[56] Bruno Andò, Salvatore Baglio, Cristian O. Lombardo, Vincenzo Marletta. "Smart Multisensor Strategies for Indoor Localization." Mobility of Visually Impaired People (2017): 585-595.
[57] A.Karimi, PedramGharani & Hassan. "Context-aware obstacle detection for navigation by visually impaired." Image and Vision computing 64 (2017): 103-115.
[58] david Zhou, yonggao yang, and hanbing yan. "A Smart Virtual Eye- Mobile System for the Visually Impaired." IEEE Potentials 35.6 (2016): 13-20.
[59] Jee-Eun Kim, Masahiro Bessho, Shinsuke Kobayashi, Noboru Koshizuka, Ken Sakamura. "Navigating Visually Impaired Travelers in a Large Train Station Using Smartphone and Bluetooth Low Energy." SAC '16 Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. Pisa, Italy: ACM New York,USA, 2016. 604-611.
[60] Chaitali Kishor Lakde, Dr. Prakash S. Prasad. "Navigation system for visually impaired people." 2015 International Conference on Computation of Power, Energy, Information and Communication (ICCPEIC). Chennai, India: IEEE, 2015. 93-98.
[61] 82B. Ando, S. Baglio, V. Marletta, A. Valastro. "A Haptic Solution to Assist Visually Impaired in Mobility Tasks." : IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems 45.5 (2015): 641 - 646.
[62] Md. Ashraf Uddin, Ashraful Hug Suny. "Shortest Path Finding and Obstacle Detection for Visually Impaired People Using Smart Phone." 2nd Int'l Conf. on Electrical Engineering and Information & Communication Technology (ICEEICT) 2015. Dhaka, Bangladesh: IEEE, May 2015.
[63] he Wang, Hong Liu, Xiangdong Wang, Yueliang Qian. "Segment and Label Indoor Scene Based on RGB-D for the Visually Impaired." International Conference on Multimedia Modeling, MMM 2014. Springer, Cham, 2014. 449-460.
[64] Cheng-Lung Lee, Chih-Yung Chen, Peng-Cheng Sung, Shih-Yi Lu. "Assessment of a simple obstacle detection device for the visually impaired." Applied Ergonomics 45.4 (2013).
[65] Haruyama, Madoka Nakajima and Shinichiro. "New indoor navigation system for visually impaired people using visible light communication." EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking (2013).
[66] Wai L. Khoo, Eric L. Seidel, and Zhigang Zhu. "Designing a Virtual Environment to Evaluate Multimodal Sensors for Assisting the Visually Impaired." ICCHP 2012.Computers Helping People with Special Needs 7383 (2012): 573-580.
[67] B. Mustapha, A. Zayegh, R.K. Begg. "Multiple sensors based obstacle detection system." 4th International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems (ICIAS2012). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: IEEE, 2012. 562-566.
[68] Hotaka Takizawa, Shotaro Yamaguchi, Mayumi Aoyagi, Nobuo Ezaki and Shinji Mizuno. "Kinect cane: Object recognition aids for the visually impaired." 2013 6th International Conference on Human System Interactions (HSI). Sopot, Poland: IEEE, 2013. 473-478.
[69] Gallagher, Thomas, et al. "Indoor positioning system based on sensor fusion for the Blind and Visually Impaired." 2012 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, 13-15th November 2012. Sydney, NSW, Australia: IEEE, 2012.
[70] Mounir Bousbia-Salah, Maamar Bettayeb, Allal Larbi. "A Navigation Aid for Blind People." Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems SPRINGER 64.3-4 (2011): 387–400.
[71] Bruno Andò, Salvatore Baglio, Salvatore La Malfa, and Vincenzo Marletta. "A Sensing Architecture for Mutual User-Environment Awareness Case of Study: A Mobility Aid for the Visually Impaired." IEEE Sensors Journal 11.3 (2011): 634-640.
[72] A. M. Kassim, M. H. Jamaluddin, M. R. Yaacob, N. S. N. Anwar, Z. M. Sani and A. Noordin. "Design and Development of MY 2nd EYE for Visually Impaired Person." IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ISIEA2011). Langkawi, Malaysia: IEEE, September 25-28, 2011. 700-703.
[73] Okayasu, Mitsuhiro. "Newly developed walking apparatus for identification of obstructions by visually impaired people." Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 24.6 (2010).
[74] Maria Cornacchia, Burak Kakillioglu, Yu Zheng, Senem Velipasalar. "Deep Learning-Based Obstacle Detection and Classification With Portable Uncalibrated Patterned Light." IEEE Sensors Journal 18.20 (2018): 8416 - 8425.0.
[75] M.Vanitha, A. Rajiv, K. Elangovan, S.Vinoth Kumar. "A Smart walking stick for visually impaired using Raspberry pi." International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics 119.16 (2018): 3485-3490.
[76] Wafa M. Elmannai, Khaled M. Elleithy. "A Novel Obstacle Avoidance System for Guiding the visually impaired through the use of fuzzy control logic." 15th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC). Las Vegas, NV, USA: IEEE, 2018.
[77] Daniel-Robert Chebat, Vanessa Harrar, Ron Kupers, Shachar Maidenbaum, Amir Amedi and Maurice Ptito. "Sensory Substitution and the Neural Correlates of Navigation in Blindness." Mobility of Visually Impaired People (2017): 167-200.
[78] Alejandro R. García Ramirez, Israel González-Carrascor, Gustavo Henrique Jasper, Amarilys Lima Lopez, Jose Luis Lopez-Cuadrado, Angel García-Crespo. "Towards Human Smart Cities: Internet of Things for sensory impaired individuals." Computing 99.1 (2017): 107-126.
[79] Priyan Malarvizhi Kumar, Ushadevi Gandhi1, R. Varatharajan, Gunasekaran Manogaran, Jidhesh R., Thanjai Vadivel. "Intelligent face recognition and navigation system using neural learning for smart security in Internet of Things." Cluster Computing (2017): 1-12.
[80] Sandesh Chinchole, Samir Patel. "Artificial intelligence and sensors based assistive system for the visually impaired people." International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). Palladam, India: IEEE, 2017. 16-19.
[81] Mr. Muneshwara M S, Dr. Lokesh A, Mrs. Swetha M S3, Dr. Thunagmani M. "Ultrasonic and Image Mapped Path Finder for the Blind People in the Real Time System." IEEE International Conference on Power, Control, Signals and Instrumentation Engineering (ICPCSI-2017). Chennai, India, sept 2017. 964-969.
[82] Rabia Jafri, Marwa Mahmoud Khan. "Obstacle Detection and Avoidance for the Visually Impaired in Indoors Environments Using Google’s Project Tango Device." ICCHP 2016: Computers Helping People with Special Needs 9759 (2016): 179-185.
[83] Daniel Koester, Björn Lunt, Rainer Stiefelhagen. "Zebra Crossing Detection from Aerial Imagery Across Countries." International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Springer, Cham, 2016. 27-34.
[84] Rai Munoz, Xuejian Rong, Yingli Tian. "DEPTH-AWARE INDOOR STAIRCASE DETECTION AND RECOGNITION FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED." IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo Workshops (ICMEW). Seattle, WA, USA: IEEE, 2016 . 1-6.
[85] Lorena Parra, Sandra Sendra, José Miguel Jiménez, Jaime Lloret. "Multimedia sensors embedded in smartphones for ambient assisted living and e-health." Multimedia Tools and Applications 21 (2015): 13271–13297.
[86] Shripad Bhatlawande, Amar Sunkari, Manjunatha Mahadevappa, Jayanta Mukhopadhyay, Mukul Biswas, Debabrata Das & Somedeb Gupta (2014): Electronic Bracelet and Vision Enabled Waist-belt for Mobility of Visually Impaired People, Assistive Technology: The Official Journal of RESNA, DOI: 10.1080/10400435.2014.915896.
[87] Larisa Dunai Dunai, Ismael Lengua Lengua, Ignacio Tortajada, Fernando Brusola Simon. "Obstacle detectors for visually impaired people." 2014 International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM). Bran, Romania: IEEE, 2014. 809-816.
[88] Lee, JH. Kim, D. & Shin, BS. Multimed Tools Appl (2016). Springer US. HYPERLINK "Multimedia Tools and Applications” Multimedia Tools and Applications 75: 15275. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-014-2385-4.
[89] Hotaka Takizawa, Shotaro Yamaguchi, Mayumi Aoyagi, Nobuo Ezaki and Shinji Mizuno. "Kinect cane: Object recognition aids for the visually impaired." 2013 6th International Conference on Human System Interactions (HSI). Sopot, Poland: IEEE, 2013. 473-478.
[90] Shrinivas Pundlik, Matteo Tomasi, Gang Luo. "Collision Detection for Visually Impaired from a Body-Mounted Camera." 2013 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops. IEEE, 2013. 41-47.
[91] Brian F. G. Katz, Slim Kammoun, Gae ¨tan Parseihian, Olivier Gutierrez, Adrien Brilhault , Malika Auvray , Philippe Truillet, Michel Denis, Simon Thorpe, Christophe Jouffrais,Simon Thorpe ,Christophe Jouffrais. "NAVIG: augmented reality guidance system for the visually impaired." Virtual Reality 16.4 (2012): 253-269.
[92] Amit Kumar, Rusha Patra, M. Manjunatha, J. Mukhopadhyay and A. K. Majumdar. "An Electronic Travel Aid for Navigation of Visually Impaired Persons." Third International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS 2011). Bangalore, India: IEEE, 2011.
[93] Pelin Angin, Bharat Bhargava, Sumi Helal. "A Mobile-Cloud Collaborative Traffic Lights Detector for Blind Navigation." Eleventh International Conference on Mobile Data Management. Kansas City, MO, USA: IEEE, 2010. 396-401.
[94] Kailun Yang, Kaiwei Wang, Luis M. Bergasa, Eduardo Romera, Weijian Hu, Dongming Sun, Junwei Sun, Ruiqi Cheng, Tianxue Chen, Elena López. Sensors (Basel) 2018 May; 18(5): 1506. Published online 2018 May 10. doi: 10.3390/s18051506.
[95] Bai, Jinqiang, et al. "Smart guiding glasses for visually impaired people in indoor environment." IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 63.3 (2017): 258 - 266.
[96] W. C. S. S. Simões, V. F. de Lucena. "Blind user wearable audio assistance for indoor navigation based on visual markers and ultrasonic obstacle detection." 2016 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). Las Vegas, NV, USA: IEEE, 2016.
[97] Vítor Filipe, Nuno Faria, Hugo Paredes, Hugo Fernandes, João Barroso. "Assisted Guidance for the Blind Using the Kinect Device." DSAI 2016 Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Software Development and Technologies for Enhancing Accessibility and Fighting Info-exclusion. Vila Real, Portugal: ACM, 2016. 13-19.
[98] Li B., Muñoz J.P., Rong X., Xiao J., Tian Y., Arditi A. (2016) ISANA: Wearable Context-Aware Indoor Assistive Navigation with Obstacle Avoidance for the Blind. In: Hua G., Jégou H. (eds) Computer Vision – ECCV 2016 Workshops. ECCV 2016. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 9914. Springer, Cham.
[99] Young HoonLee, GérardMedioni. "RGB-D camera based wearable navigation system for the visually impaired." Computer Vision and Image Understanding 149 (2016): 3-20.
[100] Huy-Hieu Pham, Thi-Lan Le, Nicolas Vuillerme. "Real-Time Obstacle Detection System in Indoor Environment for the Visually Impaired Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor." Journal of Sensors (2016): 1-13..
[101] A. Aladrén, G. López-Nicolás, Luis Puig, Josechu J. Guerrero. "Navigation Assistance for the Visually Impaired Using RGB-D Sensor With Range Expansion." IEEE Systems Journal 10.3 (2014).
[102] Pérez-Yus A., López-Nicolás G., Guerrero J.J. (2015) Detection and Modelling of Staircases Using a Wearable Depth Sensor. In: Agapito L., Bronstein M., Rother C. (eds) Computer Vision - ECCV 2014 Workshops. ECCV 2014. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8927. Springer, Cham.
[103] Matteo Poggi, Stefano Mattoccia. "A Wearable Mobility Aid for the Visually Impaired based on embedded 3D Vision and Deep Learning." IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication (ISCC). Messina, Italy: IEEE, 2016.
[104] Shuihua Wang, Hangrong Pan, Chenyang Zhang, Yingli Tian. "RGB-D image-based detection of stairs, pedestrian crosswalks and traffic signs." Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation 25.2 (2014): 263-272.
[105] Sakmongkon Chumkamon, Peranitti Tuvaphanthaphiphat, Phongsak Keeratiwintakorn. "A blind navigation system using RFID for indoor environments." 2008 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology. Krabi, Thailand: IEEE, 2008. 765-768).
[106] M. Mathankumar, N.Sugandhi. "A low cost smart shopping facilitator for visually impaired." 2013 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI). Mysore, India: IEEE, 2013. 1088-1092.
[107] Charalampos Tsirmpas, Alexander Rompas, Orsalia Fokou, Dimitris Koutsouris. "An indoor navigation system for visually impaired and elderly people based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)." Information Sciences 320 (2015): 288-305.
[108] Kumar Yelamarthi, Daniel Haas, Daniel Nielsen, Shawn Mothersell. "RFID and GPS integrated navigation system for the visually impaired." 2010 53rd IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Seattle, WA, USA: IEEE, 2010.
[109] CarmenDomingo, Mari. "An overview of the Internet of Things for people with disabilities." Journal of Network & Computer Applications 35.2 (2012): 584-596.
[110] Ivanov, Rosen. "Indoor navigation system for visually impaired." CompSysTech '10 Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies and Workshop for PhD Students in Computing on International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies. Sofia, Bulgaria: ACM New York, NY, USA, 2010. 143-149.
[111] M. Nassih, I. Cherradi, Y. Maghous, B. Ouriaghli and Y. Salih-Alj. "Obstacles Recognition System for the Blind People Using RFID." Sixth International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services and Technologies. Paris, France: IEEE, 2012. 60-63.