IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
0.2
2019CiteScore
 
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020

CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT

IJSTR >> Volume 8 - Issue 8, August 2019 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



Mode Of Action Of Ammoniating In Increasing Nitrogen Content And In Vitro Apparent Organic Matter Digestibility Of Forages

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Dede Kardaya, Deden Sudrajat

 

KEYWORDS

urea, ammoniation, rice straw, in vitro digestibility.

 

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted in order to repeal mode of action of ammoniating in increasing nitrogen content and in vitro apparent organic matter digestibility of forages. The experiment was accomplished under completely randomized design with two factors (2 x 4) and three replicates. The collected data were analysed with a two-factor ANOVA and, if applicable, continued with Tukey’s tests. Regression analyses were applied to repeal the incubation rate. Results showed that ammoniating treatment used 3% of urea increased crude protein content and in vitro apparent OM digestibility of rice straw significantly (P<0.05). Nitrogen originated from urea retained in rice straw materials during the consecutive incubation period could be best predicted with a cubical regression Y = 0,447 + 0,114 t – 0,52 t2 + 0,004 t3 (R = 0.849; p = 0.002) and the highest rate of ammoniating process occurred in week 2 of the incubation period. It was an implication that disruption of lignocellulosic fractions occurred as a result of retaining N originated from urea in C1 site of reduced sugar.

 

REFERENCES

[1] A. A. S. Kahrizsangi and M. H. Haddadi, "An Inquiry into the Challenges of Literary Translation to Improve Literary Translation Competence with Reference to an Anecdote by Heinrich von Kleist," Journal of Education and Learning, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 350, 2017.
[2] V. C. Mason, M. S. Dhanoa, R. D. Hartley and A. S. Keene, "Relationships between chemical composition, digestibility in vitro and cell-wall degradability of wheat straw treated with different amount of ammonia and water at elevated temperature," Anim. Feed Sci. Tech, vol. 27, pp. 293-306, 1990.
[3] M. S. Zaman, E. Owen and D. J. Pike, "The calculations method used for optimising conditions of treatment of barley straw with calcium hydroxide; effects of level of calcium hydroxide and urea, moisture, treatment time and temperature on in vitro digestibility," Anim. Feed Sci. Tech, vol. 45, pp. 271-282, 1993.
[4] G. Lardy and M. Bauer, Ammoniation of Low Quality Roughages., Department of Animal and range Sciences, 2003.
[5] B. Weiss and J. Underwood, Improving Lower Quality Dry Forages By Ammoniation, Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. Extension Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, 2002.
[6] M. Hadjipanayiotou , L. Verhaeghe, T. Goodchild and B. Shaker, "Ammoniation of straw using urea, ammonia gas or ammonium hydroxide," Livestock Research for Rural Development, vol. 5, no. 3, 1993.
[7] W. F. Brown, "Hay ammoniation and energy/protein supplementation for heifer development. In: 40th Annual Florida Beef Cattle Short Course Proceedings," in 40th Annual Florida Beef Cattle Short Course Proceedings, Gainesville, FL. University of Florida (Gainesville): Animal Science Department, 1991.
[8] T. Manda and M. Goto, "Ammonia treatment system of cereal straws for ruminant feeding," in The 8th AAAP Animal Science Congress Proceedings 1, 1996.
[9] AOAC, Official Methods of Analysis, Arlington, Virginia: Association of Official Analytical Chemist, 1990.
[10] J. C. Radelife, Invitro Digestibility Determination., Senior Dairy Research Officer. A compiling, 1998.
[11] R. G. D. Steel and J. H. Torrie, Principles and Procedures of Statistics, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1991.
[12] AOAC, Official Methods of AnalysisAssociation of Official Analytical Chemist, Arlington, Virginia: Association of Official Analytical Chemist, 1991.
[13] J. X. Liu, A. Susenbeth and K. H. Su dekum, "In vitro gas production measurements to evaluate interactions between untreated and chemically treated rice straws, grass hay, and mulberry leaves," J. Anim. Sci, vol. 80, p. 517–524, 2002.
[14] P. J. Weimer, D. R. Mertens, E. Ponnampalam, B. F. Severin and B. E. Dale, "FIBEX-treated rice straw as a feed ingredient for lactating dairy cows," Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 103, p. 41–50, 2003.
[15] L. P. Broudiscou, A. Agbagla-Dobnani, Y. Papon, A. Cornu, E. Grenet and A. F. Broudiscou, "Rice straw degradation and biomass synthesis by rumen micro-organisms in continuous culture in response to ammonia treatment and legume extract supplementation," Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 105, pp. 95-108, 2003.
[16] J. Vadiveloo, "The effect of agronomic improvement and urea treatment on the nutritional value of Malaysian rice straw varieties," Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 108, p. 133–146, 2003.
[17] R. M. Dixon, W. Karda, B. J. Hosking and A. R. Egan, "Effects of oilseed meals and grain–urea supplements fed infrequently on digestion in sheep. 2. Cereal straw diets," Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 110, p. 95–110, 2003.
[18] G. Abebea, R. C. Merkel, G. Animut, T. Sahlu and A. L. Goetsch, "Effects of ammoniation of wheat straw and supplementation with soybean meal or broiler litter on feed intake and digestion in yearling Spanish goat wethers," Small Ruminant Research, vol. 51, pp. 37-46, 2004.
[19] C. Gallert and J. Winter, Decomposition of organic carbon compounds in natural and man-made ecosystems. In: Jordening H.J. and Winter J. (ed.). Environmental Biotechnology. Concepts and Application, Weinhem: Wiley VCH Verlag GMBH & Co, 2005.
[20] D. Yulistiani , J. R. Gallagher and R. Van Barneveld, "Nutritive value improvement of rice straw varieties for ruminants as determined by chemical composition and in vitro organic matter digestibility," JITV, vol. 5, pp. 23-31, 2000.
[21] M. R. Buettner, V. L. Lechtenberg, K. S. Hendrix and J. M. Hertel, "Composition and digestion of ammoniated tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea v. Schreb) hay.," J. Anim. Sci, vol. 54, p. 173–178, 1982.
[22] W. F. Brown, J. D. Phillips and D. B. Jones, "Ammoniation or cane molasses supplementation of low quality forages," J. Anim. Sci, vol. 64, p. 1205–1214, 1987.
[23] D. Colombatto, F. L. Mould, M. K. M. Bhat, K. A. Beauchemin and E. Owen, "Influence of fibrolytic enzymes on the hydrolysis and fermentation of pure cellulose and xylan by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro," J. Anim Sci., vol. 81, pp. 1040-1050, 2003.
[24] J. B. Robertson and P. J. Van Soest, The Detergent System of Analysis. In: James, W.P.T. and Theander, O., Eds., The Analysis of Dietary Fiber in Food, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981.
[25] P. J. Van Soest, J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis, "Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition," J Dairy Sci, vol. 74, p. 3583–3590., 1991.
[26] A. S. M. Selim, J. Pan, T. Takano, T. Suzuki, S. Koike, Y. Kobayashi and K. Tanaka, "Effect of ammonia treatment on physical strength of rice straw, distribution of straw particles and particle-associated bacteria in sheep rumen," Anim. Feed Sci. Technol, vol. 115, pp. 117-128, 2004.