International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 8 - Issue 8, August 2019 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Speech Recognition System Approaches, Techniques And Tools For Mathematical Expressions: A Review

[Full Text]



Vaishali A. Kherdekar, Sachin A. Naik



Artificial Intelligence, Classification, Feature extraction, Mathematical Expression Speech Recognition, MFCC, Pattern Recognition, Segmentation.



Speech recognition is an interdisciplinary area which includes linguistics, electrical engineering, and computer science which focus on speech processing. Now a day’s automatic speech recognition systems are used in various fields for various purposes such as corporate, government, education which consists of mathematical expressions. Major progress is being recorded in automatic speech recognition on technology but still no one has achieved 100% accuracy. Current research put emphasis on barriers in speech recognition systems for mathematical expression. In this paper we reviewed current status of speech recognition approaches in general as well as with respect to mathematical expressions by considering the feature extraction techniques, classifiers, dataset, recording tools, performance measures etc.



[1] Weijiang Feng, Naiyang Guan, Yuan Li, Xiang Zhang, and Zhigang Luo, “Audio Visual Speech Recognition with Multimodal Recurrent Neural Networks” International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IJCNN 2017, Anchorage, AK, USA, May 14-19, 2017.
[2] Kiran R. , Nivedha K., Pavitra Devi S. and Subha T, “Voice and speech recognition in Tamil language” International Conference on Computing and Communications Technology(ICCCT), Feb 2017.
[3] L.M. Lee, H.H. Le and F.R. Jean, “Improved HMM adaptation method for reduced frame rate Speech Recognition” ELECTRONICS LETTERS 6th July 2017 Vol. 53 No. 14 pp. 962–964
[4] U. G. Patil ; S. D. Shirbahadurkar ; A. N. Paithane “Automatic speech recognition models: A characteristic and performance review” Computing Communication Control and automation (ICCUBEA), 2016 International Conference on
[5] Anand H.Unnibhavi , D.S. Jangamshetti “A Survey of Speech Recognition on South Indian Languages” International conference on Signal Processing, Communication, Power and Embedded System (SCOPES)-2016.
[6] Hemakumar G., Dr. Punitha P. "Speaker Dependent Continuous Kannada Speech Recognition Using HMM" International Conference on Intelligent Computing Applications 2014.
[7] M. A. Anusha.,S. K. Katti " Speaker Independent Kannada Speech Recognition using Vector quantization" IJCA Proceedings on National Conference on Advancement in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering , May 2012.
[8] G. Saha, Sandipan et.al., “ A New Silence Removal and Endpoint Detection Algorithm for Speech and Speaker Recognition Applications”,
[9] Rohini. B. Shinde, V. P. Pawar, “Isolated Word Recognition System based on LPC and DTW Technique,” International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Vol. 59(6), December 2012.
[10] Gajanan Pandurang Khetri, Satish L. Padme, Dinesh Chnadra Jain, “Automatic Speech Recognition for Marathi Isolated Words,” International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), Vol. 1(3), November 2012."
[11] Manjutha M [1], Gracy J [2], Dr P Subashini [3], Dr M Krishnaveni, "Automated Speech Recognition System – A Literature Review" , International Journal of Engineering Trends and Applications (IJETA) – Volume 4 Issue 2, Mar-Apr 2017.
[12] A.N. Sigappi, S. Palanivel, “Spoken Word Recognition Strategy for Tamil Language,” International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), Vol. 9(1), No 3, January 2012.
[13] Vimala.C, Dr. V. Radha “ A Review on Speech Recognition Challenges and Approaches ” , World of Computer Science and Information Technology Journal (WCSIT) ISSN: 2221-0741 Vol. 2, No. 1, 1-7, 2012
[14] Thushara P. V., Gopakumar. C, “An SVM Based Speaker Independent Isolated Malayalam Word Recognition System,” International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Computational and Applied Sciences (IJETCAS). ISSN (Print): 2279-0047 ISSN (Online): 2279-0055 March-May, 2043, pp. 281-285.
[15] M. H. Moattar, M. M. Homayounpour, “A simple but efficient real-time voice activity detection Algorithm”, 17th European Conference on Signal Processing, August 24-28, 2009, pp.2549-2553
[16] Karpagavalli S and Chandra E "A Review on Automatic Speech Recognition Architecture and Approaches", International Journal of Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Vol.9, No.4, (2016), pp.393-404
[17] John H. L. Hansen, Ruhi Sarikaya, Umit Yapanel, and Bryan Pellom, “Robust speech recognition in noise: An evaluation using SPINE corpus”, in EUROSPEECH 2001, Sept 2001, pp. 4148-4153.
[18] Paris Smaragdis and Madhusudana Shasashanka, “A framework for secure speech recognition”, IEEE transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, Vol.15, No.4, May 2007, pp.1404-1413.
[19] Shreya Narang and Ms. Divya Gupta " Speech Feature Extraction Techniques: A Review", IJCSMC, Vol. 4, Issue. 3, March 2015, pg.107 – 114
[20] Baker, J. et al. “Updated MINDS report on speech recognition and understanding, Part 2 [DSP Education].” Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE 26.4 (2009): 78-85. © 2009 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
[21] Hui Jiang "Confidence measures for speech recognition: A survey" , ELSEVIER Speech Communication 45 (2005) 455–470
[22] Balaji V and Dr. G. Sadashivappa " Speech Disabilities in Adults and the suitable Speech Recognition Software Tools – A Review " 2015 Intl. Conference on Computing and Network Communications (CoCoNet'15), Dec. 16-19, 2015, Trivandrum, India
[23] "Ms. Jasleen Kaur, Prof. Puneet Mittal ""On Developing an Automatic Speech Recognition System for Commonly usedEnglish Words in Indian English"", International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169 Volume: 5 Issue: 7"
[24] Xuedong Huang, James Baker, and Raj Red, " A Historical Perspective of Speech Recognition" Digital ACM, 2014
[25] Lawrence R. Rabiner ,"A Tutorial on hidden Markov models and selected applications in speech recognition", IEEE 1989
[26] Colleen G.Le PrellaOdile H.Clavier "Effects of noise on speech recognition: Challenges for communication by service members"Hearing Research Volume 349, June 2017, Pages 76-89
[27] Yevgen Borodin Jalal Mahmud I.V. Ramakrishnan Amanda Stent “The HearSay NonVisual Web Browser” Proceedings of the 2007 international cross-disciplinary conference on Web accessibility (W4A) Pages 128-129 May 07 - 08, 2007
[28] Jitendra Singh Pokhariya D r. Sanjay Mathur, "Sanskrit Speech Recognition using Hidden Markov Model Toolkit ", International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 ,Vol. 3 Issue 10, October- 2014
[29] X. Huang and L. Deng, ―An Overview of Modern Speech Recognition , in Handbook of Natural Language Processing‖, Second Edition, Chapter 15, Chapman & Hall/CRC, (2010), pp. 339-366.
[30] M. Forsberg, ―Why Is Speech Recognition Difficult?‖, Chalmers University of Technology, Citeseer, (2003).
[31] Santosh K.Gaikwad , Bharti W.Gawali , Pravin Yannawar, "A Review on Speech Recognition Technique ", International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 10– No.3, November 2010
[32] HB Kekre, A Aathawale, G J Sharma, "Speech Recognition using Vector Quantization", International Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology (ICWET 2011)–TCET, Mumbai, India
[33] Chadawan Ittichaichareon, Siwat Suksri and Thaweesak Yingthawornsuk, "Speech Recognition using MFCC", International Conference on Computer Graphics, Simulation and Modeling (ICGSM'2012) July 28-29, 2012 Pattaya (Thailand)
[34] Sachin Lakra, T.V. Prasad, Deepak Kumar Sharma, Shree Harsh Atrey, Anubhav Kumar Sharma"Application of Fuzzy Mathematics to Speech-to-Text Conversion by Elimination of Paralinguistic Content" 2012
[35] B. Schneiderman. "The limits of speech recognition", COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM ,Vol. 43, No. 9 September 2000
[36] YANG Xiaocui , SUN Lihua, "English Speech Recognition System Based on HMM in Matlab ", Proceedings of 2009 Conference on Communication Faculty
[37] Raissa Tavares, Nathália Brunet, SuzeteCorreia, Silvana Cunha Costa, Benedito G. Aguiar Neto, Joseana Macêdo Fechine ,"Pathological Voice Detection by Cepstral Analysis Using Multiple Classifiers " , 17th International Conference on Systems, Signals and Image Processing ,IWSSIP 2010
[38] Daniel Povey , Arnab Ghoshal, Gilles Boulianne, Luka´s Burget , Ondˇrej Glembek , Nagendra Goel , Mirko Hannemann ,Petr Motl´ıcek , Yanmin Qian , Petr Schwarz , Jan Silovsky, Georg Stemmer, Karel Vesely, "The Kaldi Speech Recognition Toolkit", IEEE 2011 Workshop on Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding. IEEE Signal Processing Society, Hawaii (2011)
[39] Lee, K.S., “EMG-Based Speech Recognition Using Hidden Markov Models With Global Control Variables” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 55, issue-3, pp: 930-940, March 2008.
[40] Edwin Simonnet, Sahar Ghannay, Nathalie Camelin, Yannick Esteve , Renato De Mor,"ASR error management for improving spoken language understanding", ArXiv, May 2017
[41] John Makhoul, Salim Roucos, Herbert Gish ,"Vector Quantization in Speech Coding" PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 73. NO 11. NOVEMBER 1985
[42] R.Vishnupriya and T. Devi ,"Speech Recognition Tools for Mobile Phone - A Comparative Study", International Conference on Intelligent Computing Applications, 2014
[43] K Naga Abhishek Reddy, Parul Agrawal, Poonam Singh, Prerna Singh, Latha N.R , ""A Comparative Study on Speech Recognition Approaches and Models"", International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – Volume 43 Number 2– January 2017
[44] Akinobu Lee and Tatsuya Kawahara ,"Recent Development of Open-Source Speech Recognition Engine Julius", Proceedings of Asia‑Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association, 2009 Annual Summit and Conference: 131‑137
[45] Arshpreet Kaur ,Amitoj Singh, "Optimizing Feature Extraction Techniques Constituting Phone Based Modelling on Connected Words for Punjabi Automatic Speech Recognition " , 2016 Intl. Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), Sept. 21-24, 2016, Jaipur, India
[46] V. Vukotic, C. Raymond, and G. Gravier, “Is it time to switch to word embedding and recurrent neural networks for spoken language understanding?” in InterSpeech, 2015.
[47] ShintaKumar, "Advances in Speech Recognition Technologies", Manuscript received July 9, 1990 at FUJITSU Laboratories Limited.
[48] Urmila Shrawankar, Anjali Mahajan,"Speech: A Challenge to Digital Signal Processing Technology for Human-to-Computer Interaction", ArXiv,2013.
[49] Richard Zanibbi • Dorothea Blostein, "Recognition and Retrieval of Mathematical Expressions" ,
[50] Cameron Elliott, Jeff A. Bilmes, "Computer Based Mathematics Using Continueous Speech Recognition",Semantic Scholar 2005.
[51] Richard Fateman ,"How can we speak math?"
[52] Chen H.HJ. (2017) Developing a Speaking Practice Website by Using Automatic Speech Recognition Technology. In: Wu TT., Gennari R., Huang YM., Xie H., Cao Y. (eds) Emerging Technologies for Education. SETE 2016. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 10108. Springer, Cham
[53] S. Euler, "Java tools for teaching speech recognition",Proceedings. (ICASSP '05). IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2005.
[54] Jinyu Li, Member, Li Deng, Yifan Gong,Reinhold Haeb-Umbach,"An Overview of Noise-Robust Automatic Speech Recognition", IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO, SPEECH, AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 22, NO. 4, APRIL 2014
[55] Qiong Liu , Stephen Levinson, Ying Wu, Thomas Huang , "Robot Speech Learning via Entropy Guided LVQ and Memory Association" , Proceedings. IJCNN '01. International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 2001.
[56] G. Rigoll, c. Neukirchen , "A New Approach to Hybrid HMMJANN Speech Recognition Using Mutual Information Neural Networks "
[57] P.C. Woodland, J. J. Odell, V. Valtchev 63 S.J. Young ,"Large vocabulary continuous speech recognition using HTK",
[58] Atsunori Ogawaa, Takaaki Horib , "Error detection and accuracy estimation in automatic speech recognition using deep bidirectional recurrent neural networks", Speech Communication archive Volume 89 Issue C, May 2017 ,Pages 70-83
[59] Vikramjit Mitraa,, Ganesh Sivaramanb, Hosung Namc,d, Carol Espy-Wilsonb,Elliot Saltzmanc,e, Mark Tiedec "Hybrid convolutional neural networks for articulatory and acoustic information based speech recognition", Speech Communication archive ,Volume 89, Issue C, May 2017 ,Pages 103-112
[60] Liang Shuling, Wang Chaoli, Du Jiaming, "Nonspecific Speech Recognition based on HMM/LVQ Hybrid Network", Second International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, 2009
[61] Manash Pratim Sarma and Kandarpa Kumar Sarma ,"Assamese Numeral Speech Recognition using Multiple Features and Cooperative LVQ - Architectures" , World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Vol:5, No:9, 2011
[62] Sofiane Medjkoune, Harold Mouchère, Simon Petitrenaud, and Christian Viard-Gaudin ," Handwritten and Audio Information Fusion for Mathematical Symbol Recognition", International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, 2011
[63] Sofiane Medjkoune, Harold Mouchere, Simon Petitrenaud and Christian Virad-Gaudin ,"Using Speech for Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition Disambiguation" International Conference on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition, 2012
[64] Cassandra Guy, Michael Jurka, Steven Stanek, Richard Fateman, "Math Speak & Write, a Computer Program to Read and Hear Mathematical Input", Univ. of California Berkeley,August 2004
[65] Richard Fateman, "Handwriting + Speech for Computer Entry of Mathematics",Univ. of California Berkeley, June 2004
[67] "Use of Mathematical Software for Teaching and Learning Mathematics", International Congress on Mathematical Education, 2008
[68] M.A.Anusuya, S.K.Katti,"Speech Recognition by Machine: A Review", (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2009
[69] Sneha K Patel, Dr. J.M. Dodhiya,Dr. D.C.Joshi, "Mathematical Model Based on Human Speech Recognition and Body Recognition", International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology(IJERT) , Vol. 1,Issue 4, June 2012.
[70] Rashmi Makhijani , Urmila Shrawankar, Dr. V. M. Thakare, "Opportunities and Challenges in Automatic Speech Recognition"
[71] Marina ISAAC, Eckhard PFLUEGEL, Gordon HUNTER, "Improving Automatic Speech Recognition for Mobile Learning of Mathematics Through Incremental Parsing"
[72] Norbert Kajler and Neil Soiffer "A Survey of User Interfaces for Computer Algebra Systems", J. Symbolic Computation (1998) 25, 127–159
[73] Paul Topping , "Using MathType to Create TEX and MathML Equations"" , 1999 TEX Users Group Annual Meeting
[74] A. Moreno, B. Lindberg, C. Draxler, G. Richard, K. Choukri, S. Euler, and J. Allen, “Speechdat–Car.A large speech database for automotive environments,” in LREC, Athen, 2000
[75] Douglas B. Paul and Janet M. Baker , "The Design for the Wall Street Journal-based CSR Corpus",
[76] K. F. Chan et D. Y. Yeung, “Mathematical expression recognition: a survey”, International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition 3, no. 1: 3–15, 2000.
[77] M. Benzeghiba, R. De Mori, O. Deroo, S. Dupont, T. Erbes, D.Jouvet, L. Fissore, P. Laface, A. Mertins, C. Ris, R. Rose, V. Tyagi and C. Wellekens, “Automatic speech recognition and speech variability: a review”, Speech Commun.49, pp. 763– 786, 2007.
[78] S. Quiniou, H. Mouchere, S. Peña Saldarriaga, C. Viard-Gaudin, E. Morin, S. Petitrenaud and S. Medjkoune, “HAMEX – a Handwritten and Audio Dataset of Mathematical Expressions”, ICDAR 2011.
[79] Anthony Rousseau, Paul Deléglise, Yannick Estève, "TED-LIUM: an Automatic Speech Recognition dedicated corpus", CiteSeerX 2012
[80] David Snyder, Daniel Garcia-Romero, Daniel Povey "Time Delay Deep Neural Network-Based Universal Background Models for Speaker Recognition"
[81] Brian Kingsbury, Bhuvana Ramabhadran, Abhinav Sethy, Kartik Audhkhasi,Xiaodong Cui, Ellen Kislal, Lidia Mangu, Markus Nussbaum−Thom, Michael Picheny,Zoltan T ´ uske, Pavel Golik, Ralf Schluter, Hermann Ney,Mark J. F. Gales, Kate M. Knill, Anton Ragni, Haipeng Wang, Phil Woodland,"Miltilingual Representations For Low Resource Speech Recognition and Keyword Search", IEEEExplore 2015.
[82] Jont B. Allen, "How Do Humans Process and Recognize Speech? ", IEEE TRANSACnONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING. VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER I994
[83] Tomáš Hanakovič and Marek Nagy , "Speech Recognition Helps Visually Impaired People Writing Mathematical Formulas", Springer 2006
[84] Attanayake, D. R.; Hunter, G.; Denholm-Price, J.; Pfluegel, E. Novel multi-modal tools to enhance disabled and distance learners' experience of mathematics. International Journal on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions (ICTer) 2013, 6 (1), 26-36
[85] Dilaksha Attanayake, James Denholm-Price, Gordon Hunter, Eckhard Pfluegel, Angela Wigmore, "Speech Interface for Mathematics: Opportunities and Limitations for Visually Impaired Learners", IMA International Conference on Barriers and Enablers to Learning Maths: Enhancing Learning and Teaching for All Learners M.A. Hersh and M. Kotecha, 2017
[86] Angela M. Wigmore, Eckhard Pflügel, Gordon J.A. Hunter, James Denholm-Price, Martin Colbert, "TalkMaths Better ! Evaluating and Improving an Intelligent Interface for Creating and Editing Mathematical Text" Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Environments, 2010.
[87] Wigmore, A. M.; Hunter, G. J. A.; Pfluegel, E.; Denholm-Price, J. TalkMaths: A speech user interface for dictating mathematical expressions into electronic documents. 2nd ISCA Workshop of Speech and Language Technology in Education (SLaTE 2009), 2009; P 3-4.
[88] Lawrence R. Rabiner, "A Tutorial on Hidden Markov Models and Selected Applications in Speech Recognition "
[89] P. L . Garvin and P. Ladefoged. Speaker identification and message identification in speech recognition. Phonetica, 9:193–199, 1963.
[90] P. Deléglise, Y. Estève, S. Meignier, and T. Merlin. 2009. Improvements to the LIUM french ASR system based on CMU Sphinx: what helps to significantly reduce the word error rate? In International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (Interspeech 2009), Brighton (United Kingdom), 6-10 september
[91] J. Cuartero-Olivera et al, Reading and writing mathematical notation in e-learning environments, eLC Research Paper Series, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain, 2012
[92] Angela Wigmore, Eckhard Pflügel, Gordon Hunter, "Evaluating and Improving the TalkMaths Speech Interface System for Dictating and Editing Mathematical Text "
[93] Shweta Singhal , Dr. Rajesh Kumar Dubey , " Automatic Speech Recognition for Connected Words using DTW /HMM for English/ Hindi Languages " , International Conference on Communication, Control and Intelligent Systems (CCIS) , 2015
[94] Salim N. Batlouni, Hala S. Karaki, Fadi A. Zaraket, Fadi N. Karameh , "Mathifier – Speech Recognition of Math Equations" 2011
[95] Muljono, Askarya Qaulan Syadida, De Rosal Ignatius Moses Setiadi, Andik Setyono"Sphinx4 for Indonesian Continuous Speech Recognition System", International Seminar on Application for Technology of Information and Communication (iSemantic), 2017
[96] Deepali Malewadi and Gouri Ghule ,"Development of Speech recognition technique for Marathi numerals using MFCC & LFZI algorithm", 2016 International Conference on Computing Communication Control and automation (ICCUBEA), IEEE, 2016
[97] Devin Hoesen, Cil Hardianto Satriawan, Dessi Puji Lestari, Masayu Leylia Khodra , "Towards Robust Indonesian Speech Recognition with Spontaneous-Speech Adapted Acoustic Models "", 5th Workshop on Spoken Language Technology for Under-resourced Languages, SLTU 2016 9-12 May 2016, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
[98] Jon Barker ; Ricard Marxer ; Emmanuel Vincent ; Shinji Watanabe "The third ‘CHiME’ speech separation and recognition challenge: Dataset, task and baseliness" Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding (ASRU), 2015 IEEE Workshop on
[99] Laurent Besacier, Etienne Barnard, Alexey Karpov, Tanja Schultz,"Automatic Speech Recognition for Under-Resourced Languages: A Survey", Speech communication, ELSEVIER, Jan 2014.
[100] Mary Harper ,""The Automatic Speech recogition In Reverberant Environments (ASpIRE) challenge"", Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding (ASRU), 2015 IEEE Workshop on"
[102] Bacha Rehmam, Zahid Halim, Ghulam Abbas, Tufail Muhammad, " Artificial Neural Network-based Speech Recognition using DWT Analysis Applied on Isolated Words from Oriental Languages ", Malaysian Journal of Computer Science. Vol. 28(3), 2015
[103] Yuya Akita, Member and Tatsuya Kawahara, IEEE"Statistical Transformation of Language and Pronunciation Models for Spontaneous Speech Recognition" , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO, SPEECH, AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 18, NO. 6, AUGUST 2010
[104] Xue Feng, Brigitte Richardson, Scott Amman, James Glass,"An Environmental Feature Representation for Robust Speech Recognition and for Environment Identification", INTERSPEECH 2017
[105] Sofiane Medjkoune, Harold Mouchere, Simon Petitrenaud, and Christian Viard-Gaudin, " Combining Speech and Handwriting Modalities for Mathematical Expression Recognition ", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON HUMAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS, 2017
[106] Tumisho B. Mokgonyane, Tshephisho J. Sefara,Phuti J. Manamela, Madimetja J. Manamela,Thipe I. Modipa," Development of speech enabled Basic Arithmetic m-learning Application for Fooundation phase learners" IEEE Africon 2017 Proceeding
[107] Dragon Speech Recognition , "Driving Productivity & Cost efficiency", White Paper,2015
[108] Arul Valiyavalappil Haridasa, Ramalatha Marimuthub and Vaazi Gangadharan Sivakumarc"A critical review and analysis on techniques of speech recognition: The road ahead" ,International Journal of Knowledge-based and Intelligent Engineering Systems 22 (2018) 39–57 IOS Press
[109] Kazuki Fujiwara, "Error Correction of Speech Recognition by Custom Phonetic Alphabet Input for Ultra-Small Devices", CHI EA '16 Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems , Pages 104-109 San Jose, California, USA — May 07 - 12, 2016
[110] Harshita Gupta , Divya Gupta, “LPC and LPCC Method of Feature Extraction in Speech Recognition Systems”, 978-1-4673-8203-8/16/$31.00 c 2016 IEEE