IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
0.2
2019CiteScore
 
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020

CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT

IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 8, August 2020 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



Tourism Marketing And Perceived Risks Impact On Attracting Libyan Local Tourists

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Ali Mohamed Ali Akasha; Albattat, Ahmad; Jacquline Tham

 

KEYWORDS

Perceived Risks, Impact, Tourism Marketing, Attraction, Local Tourists, Libya.

 

ABSTRACT

The function of tourism marketing carries a broader and more comprehensive concept than the concept of activities and activities carried out by the traditional marketing department because tourism marketing requires close cooperation between marketers and those managers responsible for operations and human resources. The objectives of this study are to study local tourists in the tourism areas of the central region of Libya; to examine the effect of the marketing of tourist service on attracting local tourists in the tourism areas of the central region of Libya. The descriptive analytical method to describe the problem of the study and then analyze it to reach the results. The study community includes local tourists in the central region of Libya who visit the various tourist areas in the central region of Libya (15000). The sample of the study was selected using the random sample method. The sample of the study included the visitors and tourists of the different tourist areas with their different scientific qualifications. The number of questionnaires to be distributed was (375). The descriptive statistics, and the package of statistical programs for social sciences (SPSS). This study is bounded by its objectives to conclude the conceptual ‘Perceived Risk toward Tourist Attraction in product equipment assembly in Libyan central region industry. Knowledge is crucial for operation management in every industry in this century. In Libyan central region industry, Tourist Attraction to the company is very crucial to the ‘Tourism marketing’ concept knowledge especially regarding engineering, procurement, and construction. Employees from that equipment product assembly who able to share their ‘Tourism marketing’ knowledge to their customer will bring satisfaction from the customer as well. Thus, it is a high recommendation for the entire production equipment assembly organisation to implement and distribute the ‘Tourism marketing’ knowledge among the employees. Operation management will have much easier distribute all the organisation knows when they able to implement an effective knowledge distribution method. Usually, barrier happened in the knowledge distribution due to information from the creator is biased through words understanding by the applier. This knowledge barrier and biased issue typically happen for those activities which often apply Tourism Service.

 

REFERENCES

[1] Ali Abdul Hamid Abdu (1986) The Scientific Origins of Marketing, Cairo: Cairo University Press, 10th Printer.
[2] As'ad Aburman, Abu Saeed Al Diwaji (2000) Tourism and Hotels Marketing (Concepts and Scientific Principles), Hamed Publishing and Distribution, Amman.
[3] Crespo A. (2009). I Rodrý'guez del, Bosque and M.M. Garcý'a de los SalmonesSa'nchez, "The influence of perceived risk on Internet shopping behavior: a multidimensional perspective". Journal of Risk Research, 12 (2): 259-277.
[4] Cunningham, L. F.; Gerlach, J. H.; Harper M. D.; and Young C. E. (2005). "Perceived risk and the consumer buying process, Internet airline reservations". Journal of Service and Market, 16 (4): 357-372.
[5] Dan, Yu; Taihai, Dong and Ruiming, Liu (2007). "Study of Types, Resources and Their Influential Factors of Perceived Risks in Purchase Online". Journal of Dalian University of Technology, 28 (2): 13-19 (in China (
[6] De Silva, A. D. A., Khatibi, A., & Azam, S. F. (2018). Do the demographic differences manifest in motivation to learn science and impact on science performance? Evidence from Sri Lanka. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 16(1), 47-67.
[7] Fathi El Sharkawy et al., (2006) Principles of Tourism Science, Alexandria, BUSTAN Knowledge Library.
[8] Greenleaf, K., (1977), Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power & greatness, Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.
[9] Greenleaf, R., (1996), On becoming a servant-leader, San Francisco; Jossey-Bass Publishers.
[10] Guang-yi Wang Zhi-sheng, (2008), The Impact of Transformational Leadership Style on Organizational Performance: The Intermediary Effects of Leader-Member Exchange, International Conference on Management Science & Engineering, 15th
[11] Guihyun, P., Matthias, S., & Richard, D., (2013), Advancing Our Understanding of Team Motivation: Integrating Conceptual Approaches and Content Areas, Journal of Management, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 1339-1379.
[12] Guinis, H., (2013), Performance Management, 3rd edn., Ch. 1, Pearson edu., Inc., USA.
[13] Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A., (2009), Transformational leadership and organizational innovation: The roles of internal and external support for innovation, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp.264–277.
[14] Gutierrez, B., Spencer, M., & Zhu, G., (2012), Thinking globally, leading locally:
[15] Guzzo, A., & Dickson, W., (1996), Teams in Organizations, Annual Review of Psychology, Vol.47, No. 1, pp.307-338.
[16] Hackman, P., Wageman, R., (2007), Asking the right questions about leadership discussion and conclusion, Am. Psychol., Vol.61, No. 1, pp.1-41.
[17] Harteis, C., (2012), When workplace learning fails: Individual and organizational
[18] Hays, L., (1991), Statistics, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, NY.
[19] Heidi Mahmoud Ali Saleh (2005) Marketing of the greatest destination for a modern tourist destination PhD thesis, Faculty of Tourism - Helwan University.
[20] Helms, R., et al, (2010), Limitations of Network Analysis for Studying Efficiency and Effectiveness of Knowledge Sharing, Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 53 – 68.
[21] Hemmelgarn, A., Glisson, C., & James, L. (2006). Organizational culture and climate: Implications for services and interventions research, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 13(1), 73-89.
[22] Henrik, B., & Mary, Z., (2013), The Structural Context of Team Learning: Effects of Organizational and Team Structure on Internal and External Learning, Organization Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 1120-1139.
[23] Herscovitch, L., & Meyer, P., (2002), Commitment to organizational change: Extension of a three-component model, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 26, pp. 474–487.
[24] Ho, L.-A. (2008), What affects organizational performance? The linking of learning and knowledge management, Industrial Management and Data Systems, Volume 108:9:1234-1254.
[25] Hofmann, A., and Jones, M., (2005), Leadership, collective personality & performance, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 90, No. 3, pp.509-522.
[26] Holt, K., & Seki, K., (2012), Global leadership: A developmental shift for everyone.
[27] House, J., & Aditya, N., (1997), The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis? Journal of Management, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp.409-473.
[28] House, J., & Shamir, B., (1993), Toward the integration of transformational, charismatic, and visionary theories, M., Chemers, & R., Ayman (Eds.), Leadership theory and research: Perspectives and direction, pp.81–107.
[29] House, R., & Aditya, R., (1997), The social scientific study of leadership: Quo Vadis? Journal of Management, No.23, 409-474.
[30] Howell, M., & Avolio, J., (1992), Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, Locus of Control, and Support for Innovation: Key Predictors of Consolidated-Business-Unit Performance, Journal of Applied Psychology, No. 78, pp.891-902.
[31] Howell, M., Frost, J., (1989), A laboratory Study of Charismatic Leadership, Organisational Behaviors and Human Decisions Process, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 243–269.
[32] Hsi-Chi H., Jen-Chia C., (2011), The role of organizational learning in transformational leadership and organizational innovation, Asia Pacific Educ. Rev, Vol. 12, pp.621–631.
[33] Hulland, J., (1999), Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: a review of four recent studies, Strategic Management Journal, Vol.20, No. 2, pp.195–204.
[34] Humphreys, H., & Einstein, O., (2003), Nothing New under the Sun: Transformational Leadership from a Historical Perspective, Management Decision, Vol.41, No. 1/2, pp.85-95.
[35] Hunjra, I., Kashif-Ur-Rehman, I.,Chani, I., Aslam,S., & Azam, M.,(2010),Factors effecting job satisfaction of employees in Pakistani banking sector, African Journal of Business Management, Vol.4, No. 10, pp.2157–2163.
[36] Hussein Ali Talal Aboud, Marketing Studies and Marketing Information Systems, Damascus: Dar Al Redha Publishing 1999.
[37] Hyypiä, M., & Parjanen, S., (2013), Boosting Creativity with Transformational Leadership, Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, Vol. 8, No.7, pp. 21-41.
[38] Iachini, L., Cross, P, Freedman, A., (2015), Leadership in social work education and the social change model of leadership, Soc. Work Educ., 34(6): 650-655.
[39] Iachini, L., Cross, P., & Freedman, A., (2015), Leadership in social work education and the social change model of leadership, Social Work Education, Vol.34, No.6, pp.650–655.
[40] Iftikhar, H., Steven, S., and Adnan, A., (2010), Knowledge Management for SMEs In Developing Countries, Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, Vol. 11, No. 2. Available at: http://WWW.tlainc.com/jkmpv10n310.htm.
[41] Ikpen, C., and Curral, C. (1997), International joint venture trust: an empirical examination, in Beamish, P.W. and Killing, J.P. (Eds), Cooperative Strategies: Volume 1 North AmericanPerspectives, New Lexington Press, San Francisco, CA, pp. 308-34.
[42] Ishaq, M., (2008), Leadership qualities and organizational transformation: A case study of University of Abuja lbrary, Abuja, Borno Library, Archival, and Information Science Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 75-79.
[43] Ismail, A., Halim, A., Munna, N., Abdullah, A., Shminan, S., and Muda, L., (2009), The mediating effect of empowerment in the relationship between transformational leadership and service quality, J. Bus. Manage, Vol.4, No. 4, pp.3-12.
[44] Jacqueline, B., (2012),The Shared Leadership Process in Decision-Making Teams, The Journal of Social Psychology,Vol.152, No. 1, pp17-42.
[45] Jacqueline, B., (2012),The Shared Leadership Process in Decision-Making Teams, The Journal of Social Psychology,Vol.152, No. 1, pp17-42.
[46] James, R., Demaree, G., and Wolf, G., (1993), rwg: an assessment of within-group interrater agreement, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 78, pp. 306-9.
[47] Jaskyte, K., & Dressler, W. (2005). Organizational culture and innovation in nonprofit human service organizations. Administration in Social Work, 29(2), 23-41
[48] Jenica, S., (2016), A study of leadership styles and its impact on
[49] Jeremy, M., Melinde, C., & Ciller, V., (2012), Perceived leadership style and employee participation in a manufacturing company in the democratic republic of Congo, African journal of business management, Vol.6, No. 15, pp. 5389-5398.
[50] Jermier, M., and Kerr, S., (1997), Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning & measurement, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp.95-101.
[51] Jixia, Y., & Kevin, M., (2010), Examining the effects of trust in leaders: A bases-and-foci approach, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 50-63.
[52] Johnson, H., (2008), Mental models and transformative learning: The key to
[53] Judge, A., & Piccolo, F., (2004), Transformational & Transactional Leadership: A Meta-analytic Test of their Relative Validity, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol .89, No. 5, pp. 55-768.
[54] Judge, A., Bono, E., Ilies, R., and Gerhardt, W., (2002), Personality & leadership: A Qualitative & Quantitative Review Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 87, No. 4, pp.765-780.
[55] Jung, I., (2001), Transformational and transactional leadership and their effects on creativity in groups, Creativity Research Journal, No.13:185-195.
[56] Kaiser, B., McGinnis, L., & Overfield, V., (2012), The how and the what of leadership, Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, Vol.64, No.2, pp.119–135.
[57] Kakabadse, A., and Kakabadse, N., (1999), Essence of Leadership (Global Manager), London: Thomson Learning.
[58] Kark, R., Shamir, B., & Chen, G. (2003), The two faces of transformational leadership: Empowerment and dependency, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 2, pp.246–255.
[59] Katz, D., & St. Kahn, L., (1978), The social psychology of organization (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
[60] Keller, T., (2006), Transformational Leadership, Initiating Structure & Substitutes for Leadership: A Longitudinal Study of Research & Development Project Team Performance, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 91, No. 1, pp. 202-210.
[61] Kerman, B., Freundlich, M., Lee, M., & Brenner, E., (2012), Learning while doing in the human services: Becoming a learning organization through organizational change, Administration in Social Work, Vol.36, No.3, pp.234–257.
[62] Kesting, P., & Ulhøi, J., (2010), Employee-driven innovation: Extending the license to foster innovation, Management Decision, Vol.48, No. 1, pp. 65-84.
[63] Kevin, K., Nick, T., Julian, B., & Catherine, L., (2012), Transformational leadership and employee psychological well-being: The mediating role of employee trust in leadership, Work & Stress: An International Journal of Work, Health & Organizations, pp. 39-55.
[64] Khaled Interview, Alaa Al Sarabi, Modern Tourism Marketing, Amman, Dar Wael Printing & Publishing, First Edition, 2001.
[65] Khan, A., (2013), Approaches in Leadership: Trait, Situational and Path-Goal Theory: A Critical Analysis, Pakistan Business Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 830-842.
[66] Khana, A., & Afzalb, H., (2011), High level of education builds up strong
[67] Khuong, N., and Dung, T., (2015), The Effect of Ethical Leadership and Organizational Justice on Employee Engagement, International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, Vol.6, No. 4, pp.235-240.
[68] Khuong, N., and Dung, T., (2015), The Effect of Ethical Leadership and Organizational Justice on Employee Engagement, International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, Vol.6, No. 4, pp.235-240.
[69] Khuong, N., and Nhu, Q., (2015), The Effects of Ethical Leadership and Organizational Culture towards Employee's Sociability and Commitment, A Study of Tourism Sector in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Journal of Advanced Management Sciences, Vol.3, No. 4, pp.329-336.
[70] Khuong, N., and Nhu, Q., (2015), The Effects of Ethical Leadership and Organizational Culture towards Employee's Sociability and Commitment, A Study of Tourism Sector in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Journal of Advanced Management Sciences, Vol.3, No. 5 4, pp.329-336.
[71] Katukurunda, K.G.W.K., Yajid, M.S.A., Khatiri, A., & Ferdous Azam, S.M. (2018a). Programme quality, students’ satisfaction, and their word-of-mouth: there any relationship? International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research, 2(8), 246-265.
[72] Katukurunda1i, K.G.W.K., Yajid, M.S.A., Khatibi, A., Ferdous Azam, S.M. (2018). Students' satisfaction towards biosystems technology; does programme quality matters (Evidence from Sri Lankan perspectives). European Journal of Open Education and E-learning Studies, 3(2), 174-190.
[73] Kim, S., &Yoon, G., (2015), An innovation-driven culture in local government: Do senior manager's transformational leadership and the climate for creativity matter? Public Personnel Management, Vol.44 No. 2, pp.147–168.
[74] Kim, S., &Yoon, G., (2015), An innovation-driven culture in local government: Do senior manager's transformational leadership and the climate for creativity matter? Public Personnel Management, Vol.44 No. 2, pp.147–168.
[75] Kong, X., Chen, Y., & Zhuang, Y., (2015), Analysis of system trustworthiness based on information flow noninterference theory, Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 367-380.
[76] Kong, X., Chen, Y., & Zhuang, Y., (2015), Analysis of system trustworthiness based on information flow noninterference theory, Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 367-380.
[77] Kotler, Marketing, Part 1, Translation Mazen Nafha, Dar Alaeddin Publishing, 2002 p.
[78] Maher Abdel Khalek El Sisi, Modern Trends in Tourism Industry, Cairo.
[79] Maher Abdul Khaleq Al Sisi, Principles of Tourism, Nile Group, Cairo, First Edition.
[80] Maher Abdul Khaleq Al Sisi, Tourism Industry, Principles and Principles, Al - Walaa Modern Printing Press, 2003.
[81] Maher Abdul Khaleq Al Sisi, Travel Companies and Travel Agencies, Cairo: Dar Al Walaa Modern Printing Press, 2003.
[82] Maher Abdulaziz Tawfiq, Principles of Hotel Management, Hotel and Tourism Book Series, Amman, Dar Zahran Publishing 2000.
[83] Maher Abdulaziz Tawfiq, Tourism Industry, Dar Zahran Publishing & Distribution, 1997.
[84] Mahmoud Sadiq Bazarah, Marketing Department, Cairo: Academic Library, 2001.
[85] Mohamed Obeidat, Tourism Marketing, Amman - Jordan, Dar Wael Publishing and Distribution, 2000.
[86] Mohamad, H.A.D., Yajid, M.S.A., Khatibi, A., Ferdous Azam, S.M. (2017). Service quality, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty of the hotel industry in United Arab Emirates (UAE): A measurement model. European Journal of Open Education and E-learning Studies, 2(4), 1-26.
[87] Najib Al-Shaafi, Abdulhafeez Al-Harout, Firas Abuqaoud, The Challenges of Attracting Tourist Exploitation in the Arab Spring Countries, with reference to Tourism in Libya, Tourism Sector and Economic Development in Libya, Baghdad Journal of Economic Sciences, University, Issue no.
[88] Noura Faraj Al-Masri, and Amer Amer Abdul-Hadi, the role of public relations in promoting internal Palestinian tourism using social networking sites at An-Najah University, Palestine, 2018.
[89] Omar Salem Basha, Market Fragmentation and its Effect on the Effectiveness of Marketing Activity, Unpublished Master Thesis, Graduate Studies Academy (Tripoli), 2003
[90] Robert N.; Stone, Grønhaug, (1993). "Perceived Risk: Further Considerations for the Marketing Discipline". European Journal of Marketing, 27 (3): 39-50.
[91] Sabry Abdel Samie Hussein. Origins of Tourism Marketing, 1992.
[92] Salah Abdel Wahab, Tourism in a Changing World, Cairo: Hanaa Publishing House, 1996.
[93] Salah El-Din Abdel Wahab, International Tourism, Dar El-Hanaa Press, 1986.
[94] Salahuddin Abdel Wahab, International Tourism, Cairo: Zahran Press, 1999.
[95] Shawqi Hussein, Marketing in Tourism and Hotels, Cairo: Dar Al Ma'arif, 1993.
[96] Shokri Abdulkarim Al Saghir, Tourism Marketing between Reality and Ambition, unpublished Master Thesis, Graduate Academy (Tripoli), 2008
[97] Talaat Asaad Abdel Hamid, Effective Marketing, Cairo, Egyptian Book House, 2002.
[98] Thamer Abdul Hamid Salameh, The Effect of Marketing Risks Associated with Electronic Banking Services on the Decision to Deal with Them, Unpublished Master Thesis, Zarqa University, Jordan 2016.
[99] Toufic Mohamed Abdel Mohsen, Marketing Research and Challenges of International Competition, Cairo: Dar Al-Nahda Al Arabiya, 2001.
[100] Yukl, A., (2005), Leadership in organizations (6th ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[101] Yukl, G., (2002), Leadership in Organizations, 5 ed. Edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[102] Zacharatos, A., Barling, J., and Kelloway, K., (2000), Development & effects of transformational leadership in adolescents, The Leadership Quarterly, No.11, pp.211–226.
[103] Zaleznik, A., (1977), Managers and Leaders: Are they different? Harvard Business
[104] Zhu, W., Chew, H., & Spangler, D., (2005), CEO Transformational Leadership & Organizational Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Human-Capital-Enhancing Human Resource Management, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol.16, No.1, pp. 39-5.
[105] Zuhair Thabet, Scientific Directory of Marketing, Cairo: Arab International Media Company 1992.