International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 8, August 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Insights Of Safety Practices In The Shipping Industry – A Qualitative Assessment

[Full Text]



Veluplay G.K., Tsimplis M.N., Shenoi R.A., Abdul Rahman, N.S.F.



HFACS, Human error, Human factor, Ship accidents, MAIB, Accident reports, Interviews.



This paper assesses the insights of safety practices in the shipping industry using secondary data from shipping accident report from MAIB and primary evidence from responses to interviews on safety practice completed by ten shipping personnel (shipping company managers and seafarers). Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework has been used to analyse the reports to identify the root causes of accidents and group them into four levels of human error. NVivo was used to group the responses from the interviews into relevant themes based on safety practice aspects. Based on the HFACS framework, human error from Level 1-unsafe acts and Level 2-preconditions for unsafe acts has been identified as the most accident contributed factors. Based on the interviews, six themes of safety practice have been identified as most contributed aspects towards an improved on-board safety culture.



[1] Akten, N. (2006) Shipping Accidents: A Serious Threat For Marine Environment. Journal of Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 12 (3).
[2] Allianz (2018) Shipping Lossess Continue To Fall But New Cyber And Climate Risks And Perennial Human Error Problem Threaten Safety Progress. Specialty, A.G.C. Available from: https://www.agcs.allianz.com/news-and-insights/news/safety-shipping-review-2018.html [Accessed 6 August 2019].
[3] Anderson, P. (2003) Cracking The Code: The Relevance Of The ISM Code And Its Impact On Shipping Practices. Nautical Institute.
[4] Apostol-Mates, R. and Barbu, A. (2015) Human Error - The Main Factor In Marine Accidents.
[5] Baker, C., Mcsweeney, K.P. and Mccafferty, D.B. (2002) Human Factors And Ergonomics In Safe Shipping: The ABS Approach. Proceedings Of The Maritime Operations. Washington, DC.
[6] Baram, M.S., Lindøe, P., Lindoe, P., Baram, M. and Renn, O. (2013) Modes Of Risk Regulation For Prevention Of Major Industrial Accidents. Risk Governance of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations, 34-55.
[7] Baysari, M.T., Mcintosh, A.S. and Wilson, J.R. (2008) Understanding The Human Factors Contribution To Railway Accidents And Incidents In Australia. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40 (5), 1750-1757.
[8] Boyce, C. and Neale, P. (2006) Conducting In-Depth Interviews: A Guide For Designing And Conducting In-Depth Interviews For Evaluation Input.
[9] Caridis, P. (1999) CASMET. Casualty Analysis Methodology For Maritime Operations. National Technical University of Athens.
[10] Celik, M. and Cebi, S. (2009) Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41 (1), 66-75.
[11] Ceyhun, G.C. (2014) The Impact Of Shipping Accidents On Marine Environment: A Study Of Turkish Seas. European Scientific Journal, 10 (23).
[12] Creswell, J.W. (1998) Quality Inquiry And Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks.
[13] Darbra, R.-M. and Casal, J. (2004) Historical Analysis Of Accidents In Seaports. Safety Science, 42 (2), 85-98.
[14] Diller, T., Helmrich, G., Dunning, S., Cox, S., Buchanan, A. and Shappell, S. (2014) The Human Factors Analysis Classification System (HFACS) Applied To Health Care. American Journal of Medical Quality, 29 (3), 181-190.
[15] Flinders, D.J. (1997) Interviews: An Introduction To Qualitative Research Interviewing: Steinar Kvale. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996. Pergamon.
[16] Gaur, D. (2005) Human Factors Analysis And Classification System Applied To Civil Aircraft Accidents In India. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 76 (5), 501-505.
[17] Gil De Egea, B., Calvo, P., García, C. & Camblor, M. (2003) Human Factors Guide For The Investigation Of Marine Accidents. Institute for Research in Security and Human.
[18] Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E. and Chadwick, B. (2008) Methods Of Data Collection In Qualitative Research: Interviews And Focus Groups. British dental journal, 204 (6), 291.
[19] Hancock, B., Ockleford, E. and Windridge, K. (1998) An Introduction To Qualitative Research. Trent focus group Nottingham.
[20] Hollnagel, E. (1998) Cognitive Reliability And Error Analysis Method (CREAM). Elsevier.
[21] Hse (1999) Reducing Error And Influencing Behaviour HSG48. Health and Safety Executive (HSE): HSE Books.
[22] Ics (2013) Implementing An Effective Safety Culture IMO Guidance On Near Miss Reporting. International Chamber of Shipping (ICS). Available from: http://www.ics-shipping.org/docs/default-source/resources/safety-security-and-operations/implementing-an-effective-safety-culture.pdf?sfvrsn=8 [Accessed 9 February 2017].
[23] Jamshed, S. (2014) Qualitative Research Method-Interviewing And Observation. Journal of basic and clinical pharmacy, 5 (4), 87.
[24] Johnson, C. (2001) A Case Study In The Integration Of Accident Reports And Constructivedesign Documents. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 71 (3), 311-326.
[25] Koester, T. (2001) Human Error In The Maritime Work Domain Proceedings Of 20th European Annual Conference on Human Decision Making and Manual Control. 149-158.
[26] Li, W.-C., Harris, D. and Yu, C.-S. (2008) Routes To Failure: Analysis Of 41 Civil Aviation Accidents From The Republic Of China Using The Human Factors Analysis And Classification System. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40 (2), 426-434.
[27] Lutzhoft, M. (2004) 'Technology Is Great When It Works’ Maritime Technology and Human Integration on the Ship’s Bridge, PhD, University of Linkoping, Sweden. Available from: http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:20945/FULLTEXT01.pdf [Accessed 15 August 2016].
[28] Mack, N., Woodsong, C., Macqueen, K.M., Guest, G. and Namey, E. (2005) Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collectors Field Guide.
[29] Maib (2000) Annual Report. Available from: http://www.maib.detr.gov.uk.
[30] Meister, D. (1971) Human factors: Theory and Practice. Wiley-interscience New York, London.
[31] Morse, J.M. (1994) Designing Funded Qualitative Research.
[32] Nvivo (2012) How Does Nvivo Support The Framework Method? Available from: http://www.qsrinternational.com/nvivo/support-overview/faqs/how-does-nvivo-support-the-framework-method [Accessed 28 January].
[33] O’neil, W.A. (2003) The Human Element In Shipping. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 2 (2), 95-97.
[34] Oltedal, H.A. (2011) Safety Culture And Safety Management Within The Norwegian-Controlled Shipping Industry. State Of Art, Interrelationships And Influencing Factors”, University of Stavanger, Doctor of Philosophy, 26.
[35] Oluseye, O.O. and Ogunseye, O.O. (2016) Human Factors as Determinants of Marine Accidents in Maritime Companies in Nigeria. Journal of Maritime Research, 13 (3).
[36] Oswald, A. (2012) The Effect Of Working Environment On Workers Performance: The Case Of Reproductive And Child Health Care Providers In Tarime District, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences.
[37] Patterson, J.M. and Shappell, S.A. (2010) Operator Error And System Deficiencies: Analysis Of 508 Mining Incidents And Accidents From Queensland, Australia using HFACS. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42 (4), 1379-1385.
[38] Rasmussen, J. (1981) Human Errors. A Taxonomy For Describing Human Malfunctioning In Industrial Installations (Ris¡-M-2304). Risø National Laboratory: Roskilde, Denmark.
[39] Reason, J. (1990) Human error. 0521314194. Available from: https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=WJL8NZc8lZ8C&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=Reason,+J.+(1990)+Human+error.+Cambridge+university+press.&ots=AlVf-d8k28&sig=OnNt6YZBF62KKB6a3UI07FgfJNk#v=onepage&q&f=false.
[40] Reinach, S. and Viale, A. (2006) Application Of A Human Error Framework To Conduct Train Accident/Incident Investigations. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 38 (2), 396-406.
[41] Richards, L. (2008) Teach-yourself NVivo 7: The Introductory Tutorials. Melbourne: Lyn Richards.
[42] Rina (2004) The Australian Naval Architect. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects (RINA). Available from: https://www.rina.org.uk/res/febuary%201.pdf.
[43] Rothblum, A. (2002) Human Error And Marine Safety. U.S. Coast Guard Research & Development Center.
[44] Rothblum, A.M. (2000) Human Error And Marine Safety National Safety Council Congress and Expo, Orlando, FL.
[45] Schiffer, M.B. (2002) The Material Life Of Human Beings: Artifacts, Behavior And Communication. Routledge.
[46] Schröder-Hinrichs, J.U., Baldauf, M. and Ghirxi, K.T. (2011) Accident Investigation Reporting Deficiencies Related To Organizational Factors In Machinery Space Fires And Explosions. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43 (3), 1187-1196.
[47] Senders, J.W. and Moray, N.P. (1991) Human Error: Cause, Prediction, And Reduction. L. Erlbaum Associates Hillsdale, NJ.
[48] Shappell, S.A. and Wiegmann, D.A. (1997) A Human Error Approach To Accident Investigation: The Taxonomy Of Unsafe Operations. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 7 (4), 269-291.
[49] Simons, H. (2009) Case Study Research In Practice. SAGE publications.
[50] Singh, Y. (2014) Processual SEMOMAP: An Application And Evaluation Of The Accident Investigation Model In Passenger Ship Accidents, World Maritime University.
[51] Skjong, R. and Soares, C.G. (2008) Safety Of Maritime Transportation. Elsevier.
[52] Sokolowski, R. (2000) Introduction To Phenomenology. Cambridge University Press.
[53] Soliwoda, J. (2014) Methods of Vessel Casualty Process Assessment. TransNav: International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 8.
[54] Starks, H. and Brown Trinidad, S. (2007) Choose Your Method: A Comparison Of Phenomenology, Discourse Analysis, And Grounded Theory. Qualitative health research, 17 (10), 1372-1380.
[55] Starman, A.B. (2013) The Case Study As A Type Of Qualitative Research. Journal of Contemporary Educational Studies/Sodobna Pedagogika, 64 (1).
[56] Stewart, D. (1974) Exploring Phenomenology: A Guide To The Field And Its Literature.
[57] Størkersen, K.V. (2015) Survival Versus Safety At Sea. Regulators’ Portrayal Of Paralysis In Safety Regulation Development. Safety science, 75, 90-99.
[58] Swain, A. (1982) Modeling Of Response To Nuclear-Power-Plant Transients For Probabilistic Risk Assessment.
[59] Swain, A.D. and Guttmann, H.E. (1983) Handbook Of Human-Reliability Analysis With Emphasis On Nuclear Power Plant Applications. Final report.
[60] Toffoli, A., Lefevre, J., Bitner-Gregersen, E. and Monbaliu, J. (2005) Towards The Identification Of Warning Criteria: Analysis Of A Ship Accident Database. Applied Ocean Research, 27 (6), 281-291.
[61] U.S. Department of Defense (2005) Department of Defense Human Factors
[62] Analysis and Classification System. Available from: http://www.uscg.mil/safety/docs/ergo_hfacs/hfacs.pdf. [Accessed 21 January 2017].
[63] Uos, SI 2012/. University Of Southampton (UoS): University Of Southampton (UoS). Available from: http://www.southampton.ac.uk/about/governance/policies/ethics.page.
[64] Wagenaar, W.A. and Groeneweg, J. (1987) Accidents at sea: Multiple Causes And Impossible Consequences. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 27 (5-6), 587-598.
[65] Whitfield, K. and Strauss, G. (1998) Researching The World Of Work: Strategies And Methods In Studying Industrial Relations. Cornell University Press.
[66] Xi, Y., Chen, W., Fang, Q. and Hu, S. (2010) HFACS Model Based Data Mining Of Human Factors-A Marine Study Industrial Engineering And Engineering Management (IEEM), 2010 IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 1499-1504.
[67] Xi, Y., Fang, Q., Chen, W. and Hu, S. (2009) Case-Based HFACS For Collecting, Classifying And Analyzing Human Errors In Marine Accidents Industrial Engineering And Engineering Management, 2009. IEEM 2009. IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2148-2153.
[68] Ziarati, R. and Ziarati, M. (2007) Review of Accidents With And On Board Of Vessels With Automated Systems–A Way Forward, AES07, Sponsored By Engineering And Physical Science Research Council In The UK (EPSRC), Institute Of Engineering and Technology (IET, Previously IEE), Institute of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE). IMarEST.