International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 9 - Issue 8, August 2020 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Human Factors That Contribute To Maritime Accidents Involving Oil Tankers

[Full Text]



Dr. Capt. Mohammed Ismail Russtam Suhrab, Ahmad Faizal Ahmad Fuad, Mohd Hafizi Said, Dheva Rhueben Velaudam, Tamim Ahmed



Human Factor, Fatigue, Maritime Accident, Oil Tanker, SPSS, Maritime Industry, Safety



An oil tanker is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products. Even though many safety measures are being practiced on board, oil tankers are known to encounter the most risk of being involved in a disaster. Maritime accidents can be caused by various factors including perils of the sea, nature of cargo, and human error. However, the main factor that induces the present situation is the human factor. The purpose of this research was to identify the human factors that contribute to oil tanker accidents, to identify the most prominent root cause of human factors, and to propose a suggestion for minimizing the risk of human factors that lead to oil tanker accidents. For this purpose, the data was collected through a questionnaire that focused on the causes of human factors that contribute to oil tanker accidents. The questionnaire was distributed to the targeted respondents, who were experts of the maritime industry, captains, deck officers, and deck cadets sailing onboard an oil tanker; the collected data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to achieve the objective of this study. The result of the research was as expected, where occupational fatigue was identified as the most prominent root cause. With the result of this research, a suggestion can be proposed to minimize the risk of human factors resulting in oil tanker accidents, thus, the number of oil tanker accidents can be greatly reduced, and the aftermaths can be hindered.



[1] .Bowen, G. (2009). Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9(2), 27-40. DOI: 10.3316/qrj0902027
[2] .Cannon, H., & Magnuson, W. (1978). An Analysis of oil tanker casualties 1969-1974. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.
[3] .Eliopoulou, E., & Papanikolaou, A. (2007). Casualty analysis of large tankers. Journal Of Marine Science And Technology, 12(4), 240-250. DOI: 10.1007/s00773-007-0255-8
[4] .Goodwin, L., & Goodwin, W. (1984). Qualitative Vs. Quantitative Research or Qualitative and Quantitative Research?. Nursing Research, 33(6), 378-384. DOI: 10.1097/00006199-198411000-00022
[5] .Joshi, A., Kale, S., Chandel, S., & Pal, D. (2015). Likert Scale: Explored and Explained. British Journal Of Applied Science & Technology, 7(4), 396-403. DOI: 10.9734/bjast/2015/14975
[6] .Martins, M., & Maturana, M. (2010). Human Error Contribution in Collision and Grounding of Oil Tankers. Risk Analysis, 30(4), 674-698. DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01392.x
[7] .Montewka, J., Krata, P., Goerland, F., & Kujala, P. (2010). A Model for Risk Analysis of Oil Tankers. Archives Of Transport, 22(4). DOI: 10.2478/v10174-010-0026-x
[8] .Ohtsubo, H., Kawamoto, Y., & Kuroiwa, T. (1994). Experimental and numerical research on ship collision and grounding of oil tankers. Nuclear Engineering And Design, 150(2-3), 385-396. DOI: 10.1016/0029-5493(94)90158-9
[9] .Palinkas, L., Horwitz, S., Green, C., Wisdom, J., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2013). Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research. Administration And Policy In Mental Health And Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533-544. DOI: 10.1007/s10488-013-0528-y
[10] 0.Papanikolaou, A., Eliopoulou, E., Alissafaki, A., Mikelis, N., Aksu, S., & Delautre, S. (2007). Casualty analysis of Aframax tankers. Proceedings Of The Institution Of Mechanical Engineers, Part M: Journal Of Engineering For The Maritime Environment, 221(2), 47-60. DOI: 10.1243/14750902jeme74
[11] Staff, N. (1990). Tanker Spills. Washington: National Academies Press.
[12] Uğurlu, Ö., Köse, E., Yıldırım, U., & Yüksekyıldız, E. (2013). Marine accident analysis for collision and grounding in oil tanker using FTA method. Maritime Policy & Management, 42(2), 163-185. doi: 10.1080/03088839.2013.856524
[13] Ung, S. (2018). Human error assessment of oil tanker grounding. Safety Science, 104, 16-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2017.12.035
[14] Strauch, B. (2015). Can we investigate safety culture in accident investigations, or should we? Safety Science, 77, 102-111.
[15] Australian Transport Safety Bureau. (2007). Analysis, causality, and proof in safety investigations. (Aviation Research and Analysis Report