IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT
QR CODE
IJSTR-QR Code

IJSTR >> Volume 1 - Issue 8, September 2012 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



Effect of Dyes on Surface Area of Zeolites From Kaolin

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

O. A. Ajayi, B. O. Aderemi, A. S. Ahmed, S. S. Adefila, Ityokumbul, M. T

 

KEYWORDS

Keywords: crystal violet, dealumination, fuchsine, methylene blue, malachite green, specific surface area, toluidene blue, zeolite, polar surface area

 

ABSTRACT

Abstract:- Synthesis of zeolite from kaolinite clay is a very promising process, requiring thorough beneficiation and calcinations to obtain purer monomer. Kaolinite clay sourced from Kankara, Nigeria is associated with inherent impurities, making its transformation rather challenging. The addition of dye, though, assisted in inhibiting the negative effects of impure phases on the desired end products and increases the nucleation growth, but it could also affect the specific surface area (s.s.a) of the as-synthesized zeolites, as well as product coloration. Specific surface area results from five types of dyes were used in this work, namely: fuchsine, malachite green, toluidine blue, methylene blue and crystal violet were compared with those obtained from ageing, alkalinity and crystallization time for the un-dyed materials. XRF, XRD, SEM and BET analytical technique were employed in monomer and products characterization. The s.s.a for products obtained investigating aging, crystallization time and alkalinity were 470m2/g, 375m2/g and 275m2/g, respectively. The introduced dyes recorded s.s.a of 220m2/g, 340m2/g, 265m2/g, 335m2/g and 520m2/g respectively, for fuchsine, malachite green, toluidine blue, methylene blue and crystal violet. The properties of the as-synthesized zeolites (especially s.s.a) were observed to correlate with the dyes' polar surface area (psa) and its bulkiness. The dye with the lowest psa gave product with the highest s.s.a, an indication of its pore penetration capability, leading to reduce level of segregation and better crystallinity.

 

REFERENCES

[1] Adefila, S.S., B.O.Aderemi, Ajayi, O.A. and D.A.Baderin (2003), Comparative surface area determination using water adsorption method. Nigerian Journal of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, vol. 11, No 2 pp 88-95

[2] Ajayi, O.A., Atta, A.Y., Aderemi, B.O., Ahmed, A.S., Ityokumbul, M.T and Adefila, S.S (2011). Synthesis of ZSM3 from faujasite: Effects of post-synthesis ageing and insitu seeding. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference on Clays and Clay Minerals in Africa and 2nd International Conference on Geophagia in Southern Africa, organized by African Clays and Clay Minerals Research Group, held at Bloemfotein, 19-21 October, 2011.

[3] Akolekar, D., A. Chaffe and R.F. Howe. (1997). The transformation of kaolin to low-silica zeolite. Zeolites 19, 359-365.

[4] Al-Khattaf, S. (2002).The Influence of Y-Zeolite Unit Cell Size on the Performance of FCC Catalysts During Gas Oil Catalytic Cracking.Applied Catalysis A. Vol. 231, pp. 293-306.

[5] Bebon, C., Colson, D., Marrot, B., Klein, J.P and Di Renzo,F. (2002). Synthesis of zeolites: study and application of a new process of homogeneous shaking out of the medium to minimize the shear rate during the crystallization. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 53 (2002) 13–20

[6] Belver, C., M.A.B. MunŐz and M.A. Vicente,(2002). Chemical Activation of a Kaolinite under Acid and Alkaline Conditions.Chemical Material.14: 2033-2043.

[7] Breck D W 1974 Zeolite molecular sieves (New York: John Wiley and Sons)

[8] Caballero, I., Colina, F.G., Costa, J. (2007).Synthesis of X-type zeolite from dealuminated kaolin by reaction with sulfuric acid at high temperature. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 46, 1029–1038.

[9] Chandrasekhar, S. and P.N. Pramada, 2004.Kaolin-Based Zeolite Y, a Precursor for Cordierite Ceramics, Applied Clay Science, 27(3): 187-198.

[10] Davis, M.E and Zones, S.I. (1997) in synthesis of porous materials: zeolites, Clays and Nanostructures, M. Occelli and H. Kessler (eds.) Marcel Dekker, New York

[11] Dias, R.M.A and D.M.Chackraburtty (1971).Evaluation of crystallinity and surface area measurements of plutonium dioxide samples. Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol. 4, part 1, pg. 74-75

[12] Ertl, P (2007). Polar surface area in molecular drug properties. R. Mannhold (ed), Wiley-VCH, 111-126

[13] Ghobarkar, H., Schf, O. and Knauth, P (2001). Zeolite Synthesis by the high-pressure hydrothermal method: Synthesis of natural 6-ring zeolites with different void systems. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 40, No. 20, pp 3831-3833

[14] Liu, X., Yan, Z., Wang, H. and Luo, Y (2003). In-situ Synthesis of NaY Zeolite with Coal-Based Kaolin , Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry 12, pp 63-70

[15] Nugteren H W, Hallman G G and Janssen-Jurkovicova M (1995).Proceedings of international ash utilization symposium (Lexington:University of Kentucky) p. 224

[16] Ojha, K., Pradhan, N.C and Samanta, A.N (2004).Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization. Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 555–564. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

[17] Ormsby, W.C., J.M. Shartsis, K.H.Woodside (2006). Exchange behavior of kaolins of varying degrees of crystallinity. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.45, Iss. 8, 361-366 (1962)

[18] Pacuvariu, C., Lazau, K.I., Lazau, I., Ianes, R., Vlase, T (2009). Influence of the specific surface area on crystallization process kinetics of some silica gels. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 97, Issue 2, pg. 409.

[19] Tanaka, H., S. Furusawa and R. Hino (2002). Synthesis, Characterization and formation process of Na-X zeolite from Coal Fly ash. Journal of Materials Synthesis and Processing, vol. 10, No 3, pp143-148

[20] Tatič. M and Drńaj B 1985 Zeolites (eds) B Drzaj, S Hocevar, S Pejvonik (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers)

[21] Triantafyllidis, K.S., Pinnavaia, T.J., Iosifidis, A and Pomonis, P.J (2007). Specific surface area and I-point evidence for microporosity in nanostructured MSU-S aluminosilicates assembled from zeolite seeds. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 17, pp. 3630-3638

[22] Whittam, T. V. (1977) Preparation of synthetic zeolite molecular sieves. US Patent 4018870