IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT
QR CODE
IJSTR-QR Code

IJSTR >> Volume 2- Issue 9, September 2013 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



Characterisation Of Ugandan Selected Grasses And Tree Leaves For Pulp Extraction For Paper Industry

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Kamoga Omar Lwako M., Kirabira John Baptist, Byaruhanga Joseph K

 

KEYWORDS

Key words: α-cellulose Lignin, pulp,non-wood materials and Uganda

 

ABSTRACT

Abstract: All types of plants and their differentparts contain similar chemical constituents although in dissimilar quantities. Cellulose in form of fibres is among the most abundant constituents in all parts and types of plants, grasses and tree leaves inclusive. Cellulose fibresfrom plant materials can be isolated as pulp. Due to deforestation resulting from land pressure there is a growing insufficient supply of wood for pulp and paper industry. The land pressure emanatesfrom population explosion which relies on agriculture and wood as source of energy. There is a needof widening the alternative sources for pulp byembracing a number of non-wood materials. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of using some selected grasses and leaves from selected trees that grow in Uganda. The selected grasses were cymbopogon nardus, saccharum officinarum, digitaria scalarum and pasperumsspwhile the selected trees were Pinusspp, mangifera indica, ficus branchypoda and artocarpus heterophyllus. Mature grasses and shed tree leaves for study were collected, prepared and their chemical composition determined using standard Tappi's methods as well as the standard Norman and Jenkins Methods. The Hollocellulose from the selected grasses varied from 60.97%-68.51% wt./wt. on oven dry basis while those of tree leaves from the selected tree plant varied from 32.08% to 45.59%. The α-Cellulose among the selected grasses and tree leaves varied from 26.19% - 35.00% and12.25% - 27.13% respectively.The lignin content of the selected grasses varied from 20.20% - 27.38%while for tree leaves it ranged from 36.62% - 49.09%. The hollocellulose, α-cellulose and lignin contents among the four selected grasses were equal or close to those of other non-wood materials and some typical softwood materials used in production of pulp. The hollocellulose and α-cellulose of the four tree leave were very low and lignin content was higher than those of most non-wood proved to be promising sources of pulp.Cymbopogon nardus is the most promising raw materials, followed by saccharum officinarum tops, then pasperum and finally digitaria scalarum. Tree leaves constituents makes the leaves to have low for priority pulp extraction.

 

REFERENCES

[1]. Marketing Initiatives (2007), Environmental leadership in the paper supply chain. The new paper fibre basket, Trend Report 2007 pp.9

[2]. Madakadze I. C, Masamvu T.M, Radiotis T, Li J and Smith D.L (2010) ‘Evaluation of pulp and paper making characteristics of elephant grass (pennistetumpurpureumschum) and Switchgrass (panicumvirgatum L) African Journal of Environmental science and Technology, Vol.4 (7) pp. 465-470

[3]. Girourad Patrick and Roger Samson (2000) , “ The potential role of perennial Grasses in the pulp and paper industry”, Resources Efficient Agricultural production (REAP) Canada.

[4]. Crawford R. L., (1981) Lignin biodegradation and transformation, NewYork: John Wiley and Sons.

[5]. Chabannes M., K. Ruel, A. Yoshinaga, B. Chabbert, and A. Jauneau, (2001) “In situ analysis in transgenic tobacco reveals a different impact of individual transformation on the spatial patterns of lignin deposition at the cellular and sub cellular levels,” Plant Journal, Vol. 28 Blackwell science Ltd, Castanet- Tolosan, pp. 271-282

[6]. TAPPI (2002), Standard Specific Interest Group Report on test T212 om-02

[7]. Tappi (2007) Working Group Report on solvent extraction of wood &pulp

[8]. TAPPI T 211 om-93, “Ash in wood, pulp, paper and paperboard: combustion at 525 degrees Celsius,” Tappi Standards, 1993.

[9]. Tappi (1999) Pulp properties committee of the process and product quality division Report

[10]. Kamoga O.L.M, Byaruhanga J. K. and Kirabira J.B., (2013) “A Review on Pulp Manufacture from Non Wood Plant Materials” International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications Vol.4 No.3 IACSIT Press ,Singapore.

[11]. Updegraff D. M., (2005 Online), “Semi micro determination of cellulose in biological material”, Analytical Biochemistry, Vol.32 No3, Elsevier inc., Colorado USA, pp. 420-414

[12]. Xiaojuan Ma, Liulian Huang, Shilin Cao, Yanxi Chen, XiaolinLuo, and Lihui Chen (2012) “Preparation of dissolving pulp from bamboo for textile applications Part2 Optimization of pulping conditions of hydrolysed bamboo and its kinetics”, BioResoures Vol.7 ser2 1866-1875.

[13]. Jirleska Flandez, M. Angels Pelach, Julio Tijero, FabiolaVilaseca, MiquelLiop, Pere mutje(2010), “Aptitude of cellulosic Fibres from whole corn stalks” XXI Tecniclpa Conference and Exhibition/ VI CIADICYP 2010 – 15 October 2010, Lisbon, Portugal.

[14]. Ates S, Kirci H., (2007), “Influence of pulping conditions on the properties of Anatolian black pine (pinus nigra Arnold ssp. Pallassiana) Kraft pulps” Biotechnol&Biotechnol Eq. 21/2007/1

[15]. Sjostrom, (1993) Wood chemistry, Fundamentals and Applications, Second edition ed. San Diego Academic press, Orlando, pp. 293.

[16]. K. Goel, R. Eisner, G. Sheron, T. Radiotis, and J. Li, (1998) “Switch grass: A potential pulp fibre source,” in Proc. the 84th Annual Meeting of the Technical section of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, January Montreal, pp. 109-114.

[17]. Jun Ai and U. Tschirner, (2010) “Fiber length and pulping characteristics of Switch grass alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, issues 1, pp. 215 – 221.

[18]. Ververis C., Georghiou K., Christodoulakis N. Santas P. Santas R., (2004) “Fiber dimensions, lignin and cellulose content of various plant materials and their suitability for paper production” International Journal on Industrial Crops and Products Vol.19 245-254.

[19]. Katri Saijonkari- Pahkala (2001), Non-wood Plant as raw materials for pulp and paper, PhD Academic Dissertation Faculty of Agriculture and forestry, University of Helsinki 2001 Finland

[20]. Nieschlag H. J., Nelson G. H., and Wolff I. A. (1960) “A search for new fibre crops” Tappi J. Vol. 44 ser 7 pp 515-516

[21]. Tutus A., Deniz I., and Eroglu H. (2004), “Rice straw pulping with oxide added soda-oxygen- anthraquinone,” Pakistan J. Biol. Science Vol.7 no.8 pp. 1350-1354).

[22]. Rodriguez A., Serrano L., Moral A. and Jimenez L. (2008), “Pulping of rice straw with high- boiling organo solvents” Biochem. Eng. J. Vol.42 No.l pp.243-247

[23]. Dutt D., Upadhyay J. S., Singh B., and Tygi C. H. (2009), “Studies on Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa as an alternative pulp blend for softwood: An optimisation of Kraft delignification process” Industrial Crops and products Vol.29, pp. 16-26.

[24]. Harjeet Kaur and Dharm Dutt (2013) “Anatomical, morphological and chemical characterization of lignocellulosic by-products of lemon and sofia grasses obtained after recuperation of essential oils by steam Distillation” Cellulose Chemistry and Technology Vol. 47 ser.1-2, pp.83-94

[25]. Shakhes J., Morteza A. B., Zeinaly F., Saraian A., and Saghafi T. (2011) “Tobacco residuals as Promising Lignocellulosic materials for pulp and paper industry”, BioResources Vol.6 ser.4, pp. 4481-4493

[26]. Ona T., Sonoda T.,Ito K., Shibata M., Tamai Y., Kojima Y., Ohshima J., Yokota S., and Yoshizawa N.,(2001) “ Investigation of relationships between cell and pulp properties in Eucalyptus by examination of within-tree property variations” Wood science and Technology Vol.35 pp. 299, Springer New York

[27]. Dutt D., Arvind Kumar S., Swarnima Agnihotri and Archana Gautam, (2012) “Characterization of Dogs Tooth Grass and its Delignification by Soda pulping process” Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 1 No.8 pp434-447 IJST Publication UK.

[28]. Procter A. R., and Chow W. M. (1973) “A cheap quality index for rot”, Pulp paper Magazine Canada Vol. 74 No. 7 pp.97

[29]. Sharma A. K., Dutt D., Upadhayaya J. S., and Roy T. K. (2011) “Anatomical, Morphological and Chemical Characterization of BambusaTulda, DendrocalamusHamiltonii, BambusaBalcooa, MalocanaBaccifera, BambusaArundinacea and Eucalyptus Tereticornis” BioResources Vol.6 No.4 pp.5062- 5073

[30]. Lopez F., Eugenio M. E., Diaz M. J., Nacimiento J. A., Garcia M. M., and Jimenez,(2005) “Soda pulping of sunflower stalks. Influence of process variables on the resulting pulp”, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 11 (3) pp. 387 – 394

[31]. Mona Ali, Medwick Byrd, Hasan Jameel (2001) “Soda-AQ pulping of cotton stalks” Tappi Fall Technical Conference 2001