Assessment Of Elemental Concentrations Of Roadside Soils In Relation To Traffic Density In Calabar, Nigeria
I.O. Akpan, E.S. William
Key words: Calabar, Elemental concentration, Heavy metal, PIXE, Roadside, Soils, Traffic density
Abstract: This study employs Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analytical technique for the analysis of elemental concentrations in the roadside soils in Calabar, Nigeria, in order to ascertain the levels of heavy metals in relation to traffic density. Twenty one elements, viz., Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb and Pb with concentrations (in ppm), ranging from 9.0±3.8 (Ga) to 192560.3±789.5 (Si) respectively were detected from ten different sample locations. Significant enrichment were obtained for Mn(7.677); Cu(5.189); Zn(5.203, 5.177 and 6.554); Ti (5.723, 5.395 and 5.000); Cr (6.901, 7.323 and 14.321); P(5.683, 5.750) and Si(6.747) respectively, indicating that their concentrations were sufficient to pose environmental problems. High concentrations of Pb in areas of high traffic density and the Strong, positive and significant correlation results corroborate with results of enrichment factor, cluster analysis and counting statistics of number of vehicles plying sample locations thereby confirming heavy metals on roadside soils in Calabar to be associated with vehicular emissions.
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