IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT
QR CODE
IJSTR-QR Code

IJSTR >> Volume 5 - Issue 9, September 2016 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



Phytochemical Composition And Antibacterial Activity Of Eichhornia Crassipes In Lake Victoria, Kisumu

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Tony Imunyo Isebe

 

KEYWORDS

Eichhornia crassipes, antibacterial, phytochemicals

 

ABSTRACT

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weed infesting rivers, dams, lakes and irrigation channels. The plant has affected the marine environment with billions of shillings being lost yearly in controlling it and also in economic losses. The plant is causing severe hindrances to the individual nation’s developmental activities. It clogs waterways making boating, fishing and all other water activities impossible. The plant spreads via the waves from the bay to bay blocking waterways and affecting aquatic life as it takes up oxygen from the water. Owing to its tremendous growth, it has threatened the diversity of local native plants alongside the physical and chemical composition of the aquatic environment. It grows very fast and spreads widely across the water body. However, despite this problem the plant has the potential to be used as a medicinal plant. The primary objective of the study was to determine the phytochemical composition and the antibacterial properties of the plant against selected strains of bacteria and determine whether it can be exploited for therapeutic purposes. The plant material for use in the study was obtained from Lake Victoria and classified taxonomically at Botany Department, Egerton University. The crude extract of Eichhornia crassipes was analyzed for phytochemical composition. The crude extract was then subjected to antibacterial assay against bacterial isolates such as Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Phytochemical analysis of Eichhornia crassipes depicted the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids and the terpenoids. Additionally, the crude extract of the plant portrayed potential antibacterial activities against some bacterial isolates. Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus showed some level of sensitivity to the crude extract of Eichhornia crassipes. However, there was no activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured for the bacterial isolates that showed sensitivity towards the aqueous extract.

 

REFERENCES

[1] Aboul-Enein (2014).Cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of active principals isolated from water hyacinth against four cancer cells lines.Egypt.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 14:397

[2] Adams, C.S., R.R. Boar, D.S. Hubble, M.Gikungu D.M. Harper, P. Hickley & Tarras-wahlberg. (2002). The dynamics and ecology of exotic tropical plants in floating plant mats: Lake

[3] Naivasha, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 488, 115-122 12. World Bank. (1996.) Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda - Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project. World

[4] Development Sources, WDS 1996. Washington, DC: World Bank

[5] Amit P and, Vikas K, (2011),Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research,1 (2),43-48

[6] B.R Murphy Ecological and socio‐economic impacts of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

[7] Bwathondi P and Mahika G (1994), “A report of the infestation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) along the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria,” National Environment Council, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

[8] CLSI.* Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; Fifteenth Informational Supplement. Wayne, PA: 2002. CLSI document no. M100-S15.

[9] Gadekar R.,Singour P.K.,Chaurasiya,R.S.,Pawar U.,Patil K.,(2010).A potential of some medicinal plants as antiulcer agents.Pharmacogn Rev.4(8):136-146.

[10] Gao-Lei, Bo L (2004). The study of a specious invasive plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): Achievements and challenges. Acta-Phytoecologica-Sinica 28: 735–752.

[11] Gibbons M., Gibbons H. Jr & Sytsma M. (1994) A Citizen’s Manual for Developing Integrated Aquatic Vegetation Management Plans.in Water Environmental Service.

[12] Grodowitz, M. J. (1998). An active approach to the use of insect biological control for the management of non-native aquatic plants. Journal of aquatic plant management,36:5761-5763

[13] Huv JS, Ahn SY, Koh YJ, Lee CI (2000). Antimicrobial Properties of Cold-Tolerant Eucalyptus Species against Phytopathogenic Fungi and Food-Borne Bacterial Pathogens. Plant Pathol. J., 16(5): 286-289

[14] Lee S.O, Choi G.J, Jang K.S, Kim J.C (2007). Antifungal Activity of Five Plant Essential Oils as Fumigant against Postharvest and Soil borne Plant Pathogenic Fungi. Plant Pathol. J., 23(2): 97-102.

[15] Makhanu K.S. (1997). Impact of Water hyacinth in Lake Victoria. In: Water and Sanitation for

[16] all: Partnerships and Innovations.23rd Water Engineering and Development Centre Conference Durban, South Africa.

[17] Malik A, (2007) Environmental challenge Vis a Vis opportunity: The case of water hyacinth, Environ. Int, 33, 122 128.

[18] Mireri C, Atekyereza P, Kyessi A and Mushi N (2007) Environmental risks of urban agriculture in the Lake Victoria drainage basin: A case of Kisumu municipality, Kenya. Habitat International 31: 375–386

[19] Mishra, S. Kumar, A. Bhargava, B. Sharma, and A. K.Pandey,K ,( 2011) “Studies on in vitro antioxidant and antistaphylococcal activities of some important medicinal plants,” Cellular andMolecular Biology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 16–25.

[20] Ntiba, M.J., Kudoja, W.M., & Mukasa, C.T. (2001). Management issues in the Lake Victoria watershed.Uganda Lake. Reserve. Manage. 6, 211-216.

[21] Opande, G.O, Onyang J.C, Wagai, S.O. (2004) "Lake Victoria: The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [MART.] SOLMS), its socio-economic effects, control measures and resurgence in the Winam gulf." Limnologica 34. 105-109

[22] Tadeusz Aniszewsk October (2007). Biological Significance of Alkaloids.

[23] Stevens JF, Hart HT, Hendriks H, Malingre TM(1992):Alkaloids of some European and macaronesian sediodege an semepervivodeae (crassulaceae).Phytochemical,31:3917–3924

[24] Tamokou T, (2012).Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae).

[25] Thompson K. (1991). The ecology of water hyacinth and its distribution in Uganda. InK.

[26] Thompson ed. Water hyacinth in Uganda: Ecology, Distribution, Problems and Strategies for Control. Proceedings of a National Workshop, 22 –23 October 1991, Kampala, Uganda. UN/FAO

[27] Twongo T, (1991) “Status of water hyacinth in Uganda,” in Control of Africa’s Floating Water Weeds, A. Greathead and P. de Groot,Eds., pp. 55–57, Commonwealth Science Council, Zimbabwe,.

[28] Twongo T and. Ondongkara O. K (2000), “Invasive water weeds in Lake Victoria basin: proliferation, impacts, and control, Lake Victoria, Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization.

[29] Wink M(1999) Introduction: biochemistry, role and biotechnology of secondary products. in Biochemistry of Secondary Product Metabolism. Ed Wink M (CRC Press, Boca Raton,FL), pp 1–16.

[30] World Agroforestry Centre, (2006). Improved Land Management in Lake Victoria Basin: ICRAF Occasional paper No. 7. Nairobi; World Agro Forestry Centre. Global Invasive Species Database, managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the World Conservation Union Species Survival Commission. Accessed February 13,2007

[31] ZEO, 2008. Zambia Environment Outlook Report 3. Environmental Council of Zambia, 201pp

[32] Zhang H (2012). Can Water Hyacinth Clean Highly Polluted Waters? —A Short Paper for Discussion. Journal of Environmental Protection 3: 340-341 doi:10.4236/jep.2012.34043.