Pesticide Use In Agriculture And Its Socio- Economic Contexts, A Case Study of Panchkhal Area, Kavre, Nepal
Key words:- Panchkhal, Nepal, Pesticides, Climate change, Pesticides treadmill, Aware
Abstract:- Panchkhal area is the potential area for the agricultural production and serves as pocket for the vegetables for Kathmandu valley< Nepal. So for increasing the yield, maximum percentage of farmers are using the pesticides knowingly or unknowingly, In the study site, farmers use pesticides mostly on standing crops in the field. Maximum percentage of farmer also uses the manure in their fields besides chemical pesticides. But the rate of use in the area has been increasing According to the respondents they spent low amount of money for pesticides in the beginning of their initiation of the agricultural practices since very low amount of the pesticides are used but as the time goes on the amount of the pesticides also increases due to change in climate. Maximum respondents complained about the discomforts regarding the health problems such as the respiration and the increase in the breathing rate and some have the problems of skin rashes, burns and irritation.
 Amera. T and Abate. A (2008). An Assessment Of The Pesticide Use, Practice And Hazards In The Ethiopian Rift Valley
 Atreya. K. (2007). Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal Published by Alternative Development and Research Center (ADRC), Available online at http://www.aseanenvironment.info/Abstract/41015129.pdf retrieved on 2011-10-12
 Atreya. K (2007), Pesticide Use in Nepal: Understanding Health Costs from Short-Term Exposure, Submitted to South Asian Network For Development And Environmental Economics (Sandee)
 Cooper, J and Dobson, H. Pesticides and Humanity: The Benefits of Using Pesticides” Published by Natural Resources Institute, University Of Greenwich
 Ghimire, S.R. (2008). Environmental Concern In Nepalese Agriculture” Review Paper, The Journal of Agriculture and Environment Vol:.9, “
 Ghimire, A and Khatiwada, B. P (2001). Use of Pesticides In Commercial Vegetable Cultivation In Tandi, Eastern Chitwan, Nepal During 2001, A Survey Report submitted to Institute Of Agriculture And Animal Science (IAAS) Rampur Campus, Chitwan, Nepal
 Giri. N, (2010). Pesticide Use and Food Safety in Kathmandu Valley/ Nepal, Master Thesis submitted to Institute of Soil Research, University Of Natural Resources And Life Sciences (Boku)
 GTZ (2008). Climate Change and Agriculture Threats and Opportunities, on the behalf of Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development
 IPCC (2007). Third assessment report mitigation’ IPCC, Switzerland.
 Khanal, RC, (2009). Review Paper Climate Change and Organic Agriculture, The Journal of Agriculture and Environment Vol 10
 Malla, G. (2008). Climate Change And Its Impact On Nepalese Agriculture, Review Paper The Journal of Agriculture and Environment Vol:.9,
 Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives Gender Equity And Environment Division, (2006), “Agriculture and Environment” Published on the Occasion of World Environment /Population Day
 Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives Gender Equity And Environment Division (2005), Agriculture and Environment” Published on the Occasion of World Environment /Population Day NARC annual reports, 1987/88 to 1997/98
 Palikhe, B.R. (1998). Pesticide Registration and Use in Nepal, Paper presented at the workshop on IPM and Weed Management, 1998.
 Palikhe, B.R.(2002). Challenges and Options of Pesticide Use: In the Context of Nepal
 Rai, Mandip (2007), Climate Change and Agriculture: A Nepalese Case, Published in The Journal of Agriculture And Environment
 Shrestha. P, Koirala P and Tamrakar, A. S. (2010), Knowledge, Practice And Use of Pesticides Among Commercial Vegetable Growers of Dhading District, Nepal, A Review Paper Published in The Journal Of Agriculture And Environment Vol:11,
 Shrestha.P Lal & F. P, Neupane (2002), Socio-Economic Contexts on Pesticide Use In Nepal”