International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us

IJSTR >> Volume 4 - Issue 11, November 2015 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

[Full Text]



Simon Munyua, Dr. Gladys Rotich, Dr. Michael Kimwele



Key words: Adoption, cost aspects, government policies, ICT infrastructure knowledge and awareness, Maternal health care, Mhealth, technology.



Abstract : Access to timely and quality maternal health care remains to be a major development challenge in many developing economies particularly in Kenya. The country’s system of providing maternal health care also continue to be anchored on conventional methods of physical presence of the patient and the doctor in a hospital setup. The country’s ICT and health policies also place very little emphasis on the use of these platforms. This study therefore sought to establish the factors affecting the adoption of mHealth by focusing on maternal health in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Objectives of the study were: to determine the extent to knowledge and awareness affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH, to identify the government policies affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH, to assess how access to technology affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal healthcare, to establish the effects of ICT infrastructure on the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care and to identify the cost aspects affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. It is envisaged that the study could provide useful information on the adoption of mHealth in managing maternal health care in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Descriptive survey research design will be used where all the medical staff and patients of Nakuru Provincial General Hospital was surveyed. The study population therefore was made up of 24 medical staff and 3460 mothers visiting the antenatal clinic selected using clustered random sampling technique. The main instrument for primary data collection was the questionnaire. Data analysis was then done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics to be used include frequency counts, percentages, and measures of central tendency. Inferential statistics on the other hand include t-test analysis and spearman correlation. The study is expected to reveal the level of adoption of mHealth in maternal health care both at individual and hospital level at Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. The findings indicated that knowledge and awareness influences the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care. There was understanding of mHealth among hospital employees. The government policies influence the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care. The hospital had no policy to enhance the integration of ICT in health service delivery. From the findings on the access to mobile technology and adoption of mHealth in maternal health care, it was concluded that computers and computer accessories are fair while internet connectivity was poor. There was no promotion of government health policies on the use of mHeath. There were no government policies that guide the implementation of mHealth in the hospital. The government policies didn’t promote the use of ICT in health care innovations. The cost aspects affect adoption of mHealth in maternal health care. The expense of mHealth was not affordable by the patients while the expense of mHealth is not affordable by the hospital employees.



[1] Qiang, C., Yamamichi, M., Hausman, V., Miller, R., & Altman, D. (2012). Mobile Applications for the Health Sector. World Bank ICT Sector Unit. Washington DC.

[2] Deloitte (2012). mHealth in an mWorld .How mobile technology is transforming health care. Deloitte Development LLC: Washington, DC.

[3] Mechael, P.Aab, E.S., Kaonga, N.N. & Ossman, J. (2010). Barriers and Gaps Affecting mHealth in Low and Middle Income Countries: Policy White Paper. New York: Center for Global Health and Economic Development, The Earth Institute, Columbia University.

[4] Hanauer, D.A., Wentzell, K., & Laffel, N. (2009). Computerized automated reminder diabetes system (CARDS): e-mail and SMS cell phone text messaging reminders to support diabetes management. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009;11(2):99–106.

[5] Gallelli, M., Wells, M., Peltonen, A., Groden, P. & Boomers, J. (2010). Technology & Health: Consumers Taking Charge! Enterprise Forum Northwest.

[6] Kolesnikov-Jessop, S. (2011). Do-it-Yourself Healthcare with Smartphones. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/01/technology/01iht-srhealth01.

[7] Istepanian, H., & Lacal. J. (2003). Emerging Mobile Communication Technologies for Health: Some Imperative Notes on MHealth. Proceedings of the 25th Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Annual International Conference: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Cancun Mexico.

[8] Germann, S. (2012). mHealth: Kenya. World Vision Global Health: Nairobi

[9] CBS, MOH & ORC Macro (2004). Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003. Calverton, Maryland: Central Bureau of Statistics (Kenya), Ministry of Health (Kenya) and ORC Macro.

[10] KNBS & ICF Macro. (2010). Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-09. Calverton, Maryland: Kenya.

[11] Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed). New York, NY: Free Press.

[12] De Marez, L., Vyncke, P., Berte, K., Schuurman, D., & De Moor, K. (2008). Adopter segments, adoption determinants and mobile marketing. Journal of Targeting, Measurement & Analysis for Marketing, 16(1), 78-95.

[13] Bass, F. (1969). A new product growth model for consumer durables, Management Science, 15(5), 215-227.

[14] Assael, H. (2005). A demographic and psychographic profile of heavy internet users and users by type of internet usage, Journal of advertising research, 45(1), 93-123.

[15] Dillon, A.; Morris, M. User acceptance of new information technology: theories and models. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, Medford (NJ), v.31, p.3-32, 1996.

[16] VENKATESH, V., DAVIS, F. D. A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, Ann Arbor (MI), v.46, n.2, p.186-204, 2000.

[17] German Foundation for World Population and Institute for Education in Democracy (2011). Health Financing in Kenya: The Case of RH/FP. Nairobi: German Foundation for World Population (DSW).

[18] KwadwoAsenso, O., & AyalewMekonnen, D. (2012). The Importance of ICTs in the Provision of Information for Improving Agricultural Productivity and Rural Incomes in Africa. UNDP WP 2012-015.

[19] Hall, B., & Khan, B. (2002). Adoption of New Technology. New Economy Handbook:Berkeley: University of California at Berkeley.

[20] Boston Consulting Group (2012). The Socio-Economic Impact of Mobile Health.

[21] West, D. (2012). How Mobile Devices are Transforming Healthcare. Technology Innovation. Vol (18)1-14.

[22] McKinsey & Company (2010). mHealth: A new vision for healthcare. McKinsey & Company: London.

[23] Economic Intelligence Unit (2012). Emerging mHealth: Paths for growth. Price Water House Coopers (PWC): London.

[24] Roberto, J. R. (2008). Compelling issues for adoption of e-health. , eHealth Strategies, USA The Commonwealth Health Ministers Reference Book 2008 Ruder finn (2012) mHealth Report.

[25] Rogerscarsey, S. (2012). Investing in Infrastructure Through Private Equity. Investment Insight. Segal Advisors, Inc.

[26] Bornman, E. (2012). The Mobile Phone in Africa: Has It Become a Highway to the Information Society or Not? Contemporary Educational Technology, 2012, 3(4), 278-292.

[27] Calandro, E. A., Gillwald, M., Moyo, H., & Stork, C. (2010). African Telecommunication Sector performance Review 2009/2010. Towards Evidence-Based ICT Policy and Regulation, Vol. 2. Policy Paper no. 5.

[28] Gillwald, A. (2010). ICT regulation in Africa - The Good, The Bad & Ugly. Communication Technologies Handbook. BMI-TechKnowledge

[29] National Council for Population and Development (NCPD) [Kenya]. (2000). National population policy for sustainable development. Sessional Paper No. 1. Nairobi: NCPD.

[30] Jensen, M. (2006). Lowering the costs of international bandwidth in Africa (draft format). [O]. Retrieved on 23 September 2014 from http://rights.apc.org/documents/fibre_ bandwidth EN.pdf

[31] Kamalipour, Y.R. (Ed.). (2007). Global communication (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

[32] Castells, M. (2000). End of millennium: The information age: Economy, society and culture- Volume II.I (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.

[33] World Health Organization (2002). WHO antenatal care randomized trial: manual for the implementation of the new model. WHO document WHO/RHR/01.30. Geneva: WHO.

[34] Gravetter, I., & Forzano, P. (2003). Research Methods for Behavioral Sciences, Belmont: Wardsworth.

[35] Mugenda, O. M., & Mugenda, G. D. (2003). Research methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approach. Nairobi: Acts Press.

[36] Jwan, J. (2010). Conducting Qualitative Research: Current Trends and Developments: Moi University 5th Campus Wide Research Workshop.

[37] Borg, W.R., and Gall, M.D. (1993). Educational research (3rd ed). New york: Longman.

[38] Callan, P., Miller, R., Sithole, R., Daggett, M., Altman, D., Dalberg, J., & O’Byrne, D. (2011). mHealth Education: Harnessing the Mobile Revolution to Bridge the Health Education & Training Gap in Developing Countries. Report for mHealthEd 2011 at the Mobile Health Summit.

[39] Paton, M.Q. (2002). “Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods (3rd Edition).” London: Sage Publication.

[40] Calandro, E., Gillwald, A., Moyo, M., & Stork, C. (2010). Comparative ICT sector performance review 2009/2010. Cape Town: Research ICT Africa.

[41] National Cancer Institute (2005). Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. (2nd ed.) NIH Publication No. 05-3896: US Department of Health and Human Services. Available online at http://tinyurl.com/y4648y.

[42] Nakuru, National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development (2005). District Strategic Plan 2005 - 2010 for Implementation of the National Population Policy for Sustainable Development. Nairobi: NCAPD.