International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us

IJSTR >> Volume 2- Issue 11, November 2013 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Molecular Detection Of Toxigenic New Record Cyanobacterium: Westiellopsis Prolifica In Tigris River

[Full Text]



Ibrahim J. Abed, Abdul latif. M. Jawad, Abdulhasan G.A., Ahmed Aidan Al- Hussieny, Laith Ibrahim Moushib



Index Terms: Cyanobacteria, Fresh water, Microcystin , PCR, Phycocyanin, Tigris River, Westiellopsis prolifica.



Abstract: Westiellopsis prolifica blue-green alga, was investigated to produce microcystin. Between 2011 and 2012, three isolates of Westiellopsis prolifica were obtained from fresh water in three sites of Tigris River and identified by light compound microscope as new record species in Iraqi freshwater belonged to the order of Stigonematales. Two sets of primers were used to detect cyanobacterium DNA and gene involved in microcystin synthesis. The results revealed that all isolates of Westiellopsis prolifica amplified a gene fragment from the phycocyanin shared by all cyanobacteria and myc E belonged to microcystin. Our data concluded that Westiellopsis prolifica producer of microcystin and myc E was the first time used to identify microcystin in this genus.



[1] A.K. Dash and P.C. Mishra,.” Growth Response of Blue- Green Alga Westiellopsis prolifica in Sewage Enriched Paper Mill Waste Water,” Rev. Int. Contam. Ambient 15, 2:79-83, 1999.

[2] O. N. Tiwari, B. V. Singh, U. Mishra, , A. K. Singh, D.W. Dahar, and B. K. Sangh, “Distribution and Physiological Characterization of Cyanobacteria Isolated from Arid Zones of Rajasthan” Tropical Ecology, 46,2: 165–171, 2005.

[3] R.W. Zurawell, H. Chen, J.M. Burke and E.E. Prepas, “Hepatotoxic Cyanobacteria: A review of the Biological Importance of Microcystins in Freshwater Environments” J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 8, 1:1–37, 2005.

[4] A.D. Jungblut, and B.A. Neilan, “Molecular Identification and Evolution of the Cyclic Peptide Hepatotoxins, Microcystin and Nodularin, Synthetase Genes in Three Orders of Cyanobacteria” Archives of Microbiology,185: 107-114, 2006.

[5] K. Anagnostidisand and J. Komarek, “Modern Approach to Classification System of Cyanophytes 5-Stigonematales” Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. Algol. Stud, 86: 1-73, 1990.

[6] M.R. Prinsep, F.R. Caplan, R.E. Moore, G.M.L. Patterson, R.E. Honkanen and A.L. Boynton, “Microcystin-LA from a blue-green alga belonging to the Stigonematales” Phytochemistry ,31: 1247-1248, 1992.

[7] M.F. Fiore, D.P. Genua’ rio, C.S. Pamplona da Silva, T.K. Shishido, L.B. Moraes, R.C Neto, and M.E. Silva-Stenico “Microcystin production by a freshwater spring cyanobacterium of the genus Fischerella” Toxicon, 53: 754-761, 2009.

[8] J.M. Hernandez, V. Lopez-Rodas, and E. Costas, “Microcystins from Tap water could be a Risk Factor for Liver and Colorectal Cancer: A risk Intensified by Global Change” Med. Hypotheses, 5: 539-540, 2009.

[9] B.A. Neilan, D. Jacobs, and A. Goodmann, “Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Toxic Cyanobacteria Determined by DNA Polymorphisms within the Pycocyanin Locus” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 61,11: 3875-3883, 1995.

[10] B.A. Neilan, B.P. Burns, D. Relman, and D. Lowe, “Molecular identification of cyanobacteria associated with stromatolites from distinct geographical locations” Astrobiology, 2: 271-280, 2002.

[11] B.J. Prabina, K. Kumar, and S. Kannaiyan, “DNA amplification fingerprinting as a tool for checking genetic purity of strains in the cyanobacterial inoculum.” World J. of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 21:629-634, 2005.

[12] J. Vaitomaa, A. Rantala, K. Halinen, L. Rouhiainen, P. Tallberg, L. Mokelke, and K. Sivonen, “Quantitative Real-Time PCR for Determination of Microcystin Synthetase E Copy Numbers for Microcystis and Anabaena in lakes, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 69 ,12:7289-7297, 2003.

[13] A. Rantala, D. Fewer, M. Hisbergues, L.Rouhiainnen, J. Vaitomaa, T. Brner, and K. Sivonen, “Phylogenetic Evidence for the Early Evolution of Microcystin Synthesis”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101,2: 568-573, 2004.

[14] J.R. Stein, Handbook of Phycological Methods: Culture Methods and Growth Measurements. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,1973.

[15] T.V. Desikachary, Cyanophyta. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp 686, 1959.

[16] A.R. Matehkolaei, K. Makimura, M.R. Shidfar, Zaini, M.R. Eshraghian, N. Jalaizand, S.N. Sisakht, L. Hosseinpour, and H. Merhendi, “Use of Single-enzyme PCR-restriction Digestion Barcode Targeting the Internal Transcribed spacers (ITS rDNA) to Identify Dermatophyte Species”, Iran. J. Publ. Hea., 41,3: 82-94, 2012.

[17] J.J. Doyle, and J.L. Doly, “A rapid Total DNA Preparation Procedure for Fresh Plant Tissue” Focus, 12:13-15, 1990.

[18] B.K. Maulood, and J.J. Toma,” Check list of Algae in Iraq”, J. Babylon, 9, 3: 16, 2004.

[19] M.L. Saker, M. Vale, D. Kramer, and V.M. Vasconcelos, “Molecular Techniques for the Early Warning of Toxic Cyanobacteria Blooms in Freshwater Lakes and Rivers”, Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 75:441-449, 2007.

[20] A.Baron-Sola, Y. Ouahid, and F.F. delCampo, “Detection of Potentially Producing Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystin Strains in Mixed Populations of Cyanobacteria by Simultaneous Amplification of Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystin Gene Regions” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 75:102-108, 2012..

[21] Teneva, P. Stoyanov, R. Mladenov, and B. Dzhambazov, “Molecular and Phylogenetic Characterization of Two Species of the Genus Nostoc (Cyanobacteria) Based on the cpcB-IGS-cpcA Locus of the Phycocyanin Operon” J. BioSci. Biotech., 1,1: 9-19, 2012.

[22] S.K. Ghosh, P.K. Das, and S.N. Bagchi, “PCR- Based Detection of Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterial Blooms from Central India” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 46: 66-70, 2008.

[23] J. Al-Tebrineh, M.M. Gehringer, R. AKcaelon, and B.A. Neilan, “ A new Quantative PCR assay for the Detection of Hepatotoxigenic Cyanobacteria” Toxicon, 57:546-554, 2011.

[24] R.E. Honkanen, F.R. Caplan, K.K. Baker, C.L. Baldwin, S.C. Bobzin, C.M. Bolis, G.M.Cabrera, L.A. Johnson, J.H. Jung, L.K. Larsen, I.A. Levine, R.E. Moore, C.S. Nelson, G.M.L.Patterson, K.D.Tschappat, G.D. Tuang, A.L. Boynton, A.R. Arment, W.W. Carmichael, K.D. Rodland, B.E. Magun, and R.A. Lewin, “Protein phosphatase inhibitory activity in extracts of cultured blue-green algae (cyanophyte)” J. Phycol., 31, 478–486, 1995.

[25] A.C.R. Oliveira, V.F. Magalha, R.M. Soares, and S.M.F.O. Azevedo, “Influence of drinking water composition on quantitation and biological activity of dissolved microcystin (cyanotoxin)”, Environ. Toxicol., 20, 126-130, 2005

[26] A. Rantala, P.R. Wacklin, C. Lyra, L. Lepisto, J. Rintala, J.M. Boczek, and K. Sivonen, “Detection of Microcystin-producing Cyanobacteria in Finnish Lakes with Genes-specific Microcystin Synthetase Gene E (mcyE) PCR and Associations with Environmental Factors” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 72,9: 6101-6110, 2006. M.C. Bittencourt-Oliveira, M.C.Oliveira, and E. Pinto, “Diversity of Microcystin-producing Genotype in Brazilian Strains of Microcysis (Cyanobacteria)”, Braz.J.Bio., 71, 1:209-216, 2011.