IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT
QR CODE
IJSTR-QR Code

IJSTR >> Volume 5 - Issue 10, November 2016 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



Bacteriological Quality And Public Health Implications Of Fermented Cassava (Garri) Sold In Okwor And Nkalagu Markets In Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Orji, J.O., Nnachi, A.U., Ojiochie, C.O., Egwuatu, C.C., Efunshile, A.M., Ezejiofor, O.I., Ezeama, C.O., Nwaneli, C.U., Mbachu, I.

 

KEYWORDS

Bacteria, Cassava, Garri, pH, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Food security has been a major challenge to the world populace over the last few centuries because of the alarming concern of disease outbreak caused by consumption of contaminated food and food products. This study determined the bacteriological quality of fermented cassava (garri) sold in Okwor and Nkalagu markets in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A total of sixteen (16) samples (8 white and 8 yellow) were purchased from the two markets and processed using standard procedures. The results revealed a high microbial burden in the garri samples examined ranging from 6.6 x 106 to 1.07 x 107 Aerobic Plate Counts (APC). The pH values of the garri samples purchased from both markets ranged from 5.47 to 6.61. Out of the sixteen samples, a total of 32 bacterial isolates were obtained, out of which 14(43.8%) were Staphylococcus aureus, 6(18.8%) Escherichia coli, 5(15.6%) Bacillus cereus, 4(12.5%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2(6.2%) Streptococcus species, while the least occurring isolate was Yersinia species with recovery rate of 3.1%. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus species were isolated from Okwor market while Yersinia species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from Nkalagu market. The study reveals unacceptable bioload in garri from both markets. The heavy bacterial contamination and vast array of bacteria isolated from the garri sold in both markets portend alarming danger posed by consumption of garri sold in these markets. Therefore renewed vigilance on the efficacies of food processing conditions, handling techniques and handlers technical knowhow, personal hygiene practices and safety of finished products are hereby recommended.

 

REFERENCES

[1] M.V. Agah, J.O. Orji, A.U. Nnachi, O.S. Chukwu, O.E. Udu-Ibiam, A.C. Nwachi, and O.O. Olaosebikan, “Isolation and Identification of Rhizobium species from Root Nodules of Arachis hypogaea L. and Telfairia occidentalis in South-East, Nigeria”, International Journal of Science and Research, 5(6): 227-230. 2016.

[2] D. Tsegai and P.C. Kormawa, “Determinants of Urban Household Demand For Cassava Products in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria”, In: Conference of International Research for Development, Witzenhause, 9-10. 2002.

[3] O.B. Oluwole, O.O. Olatunji and S.F. Odunfa, “A process technology for conversion of dried cassava chips into garri”, Nigeria Food Journal, 22: 65-73. 2004

[4] J.O. Abu, G.T.O. Badifu and M.A. Akpapunam, “Effect of Crude palm oil inclusion on some physicochemical properties of garri –A fermented cassava Food product”, Nigerian Food Journal. 24(1): 73-75. 2006.

[5] O.J. Ikegwu, V.N. Nwobasi, M.O. Odoh and N.U. Lledinma, “Evaluation of pasting and some functional properties of staqarch isolated from some improved cassava varieties in Nigeria”, African Journal of Biotechnology. 8(10): 2310-2315. 2009.

[6] R.C. Ray and P.S. Sivakumas, “Traditional and novel fermented foods and beverages from tropical root and tuber crops: review”, International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44:1073-1087. 2009.

[7] M. Huch, A. Hanak, I. Specht, C.M. Dortu, P. Thonart, S. Mbugua, W.H. Holzapfel, C. Hertel and C.M.A.P. Franz, “Use of Lactobacillus strains to start cassava fermentations for Garri production”, International Journal of Food Microbiology, 128: 258-267. 2008.

[8] A.A. Akindahunsi, G. Oboh and A.A. Oshodi, “Effect of fermenting cassava with Rhizopusoryzae on the chemical composition of its flour and garri”, Riv. Ital. DelleSost. Grasse, 76: 437-440. 1999.

[9] S. Azam-Ali, E. Judge, P. Fellows and M. Battcock, “Small-scale food processing: A directory of equipment and methods”, Second edition, ITDG Publishing, pp: 256. 2003.

[10] J. E. Amadi and M.O. Adebola, “Effect of moisture content and storage conditions on the storability of garri”, African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(24): 4591- 4594. 2008.

[11] R.C. Egbuobi, J.N. Dike-Ndudim, G.C. Ojiegbe, H.M. Okorie, J.K. Nnodim and A.I. Ogamka, “Bacteriological quality of garri sold in owerri open markets, Imo State, Nigeria”, African Journal of Food Science, 9(4), pp 252-256. 2015.

[12] C.J. Ogugbue, C. Mbakwem-Aniebo and F. Akubuenyi, “Assessment of microbial air contamination of post processed garri on sale in markets”, African Journal of Food Science, 5(8), 503 – 512. 2011.

[13] I. S. Ogiehor and M.J. Ikenebomeh, “The effect of different packaging materials on the shelf stability of garri”, African Journal of Biotechnology, 523: 2412-1416. 2005.

[14] N.L. Speck, “Compendium of methods for the examination of foods”, APHA Washington DC, USA, pp. 22. 1976.

[15] W. E. Baine, “Food borne disease: A focus for Health Education”, (2nd Edition) ASSA publishers pp. 1-34. 2000.

[16] I. S. Ogiehor, M.J. Ikenebomeh and A.O. Ekundayo, “The bioload and aflatoxin content of market garri from some selected states in southern Nigeria: public health significance”. Journal of African Health Science. 7(4): 223-227. 2007.

[17] B.K. Olapade, S. Oranusi, R. Ajala and S.J. Olorunsola, “Microbiological quality of fermented cassava (garri sold) sold in Ota Ogun State, Nigeria”, International Journal on Current Microbiology and Applied Science. 3(3): 888-895. 2014.

[18] ICMSF, “Microorganisms in Foods 5: Microbiological Specifications of Pathogens”, International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. 1996.

[19] L.O. Sanni, “Cassava Utilisation and Regulatory Framework in Nigeria”, UNIDO. 2005.

[20] J.O. Orji, E.C. Okonkwo, C. Anyim and U.O. Ekuma, “Microbiological Assessment of Cassava Based Foods (Garri and Akpu) Within Abakaliki Metropolis”. Journal of Applied Science and Research, 2(2):90-98. 2014.

[21] T.B. Thoha, E.H.I.A. Georgina, M.O. Sikirat, A.M. Toyin, O.O. Davies, A.K. Omobowale, M. Tietjen and D. Fung, “Salmonella and food safety”, Critical Review Microbiology, 21:58-60. 1890.

[22] P. Mensah, “Persistant diarrhea in Ghana”, Report Submitted to Japan international Cooperation Agency. Pp. 23-26. 1997.

[23] O.A. Idowu, “Oral faecal parasites and personal hygiene of food handlers in Abeokuta, Nigeria”, Journal of Africa Health Science, 6:160 164. 2006.

[24] S. Taulo, A. Wetlesen, R. Abrahamsen, R. Mkakosya and G. Kululanga. Microbiological quality of water, associated management practices and risks at source, transport and storage points in a rural community of Lungwena, Malawi. Africa Journal of Microbiological Research, 72: 131-137. 2008.

[25] U.S. Oranusi and W. Braide, “A study of microbial safety of ready-to eat foods vended on highways: Onitsha-Owerri, south east Nigeria”, International Research Journal of Microbiology 3(2): 066-071. 2012.

[26] G. Manlee, S. Ali, A. Clin, R. Ludaising, R., Khan, F. Mohamed, R. Reheman, S. Sooknanam, R. Tota-Maheraj, D. Simeon and A.A. Adesiyrin, “Bacteriological quality of double sold by street vendors in trinidad and the attitude, knowledge and perceptions of the public about its consumption and health risk”, Journal of Food Microbiology, 20:631-630. 2003.

[27] Z. Fang, Z. Ouyang, H. Zheng, X. Wang and L. Hu, “Culturable airborne bacteria in outdoor environments in Beijing, China”, Journal of Microbial Ecology, 54: 487-496. 2007.

[28] M. Pósfai, J. Li, J. Anderson and P. Buseck, “Aerosol bacteria over the Southern Ocean during ACE-1”, Journal of Atmosphere Reserve. 66: 231-240. 2003.

[29] S. Gillum and E. Levetin, “The air spora close to a compost facility in Northeast Oklahoma: part I: Spore trap sampling”, International Journal of Aerobiologia, 24: 3- 12. 2008.

[30] G. Recer, M. Browne, E. Horn, K. Hill and W. Boehler, “Ambient air levels of Aspergillus fumigatus and thermophilic actinomycetes in a residential neighborhood near a yard-waste composting facility”, Aerobiologia, 17: 99-108. 2001

[31] K.Y. Kim, H.T. Kimb, D. Kim, J. Nakajimad and T. Higuchi, “Distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in the feed stuff manufacturing factories”, Journal of Hazard Material, 16(9): 1054-1060. 2009.

[32] J.F.R. Lues, M.M. Theron, P. Venter and M. H. Rasephei, “Microbial composition in bioaerosols of a high-throughput chicken-slaughtering facility”, Journal of Poultry Science, 86: 142-149. 2007.

[33] P. Whyte, J.D. Collins, K. McGill, C. Monahan and H. O’Mahony, “Distribution and prevalence of airborne microorganisms in three commercial poultry processing plants” Journal of Food Protection, 64: 388-391. 2001.

[34] K.P. Talaro and A. Talaro, “Foundations in Microbiology”, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, pp. 564-569. 1999.

[35] L.J. Blackey and F.G. Priest, “The occurrence of Bacillus cereus in some dried foods including pulses and cereals”, Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 4(8): 297-302. 1980.

[36] R.I. Aboloma, “Microbiological analysis of bread samples from bakery to sale points in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria”, Journal of Tropical Biology and Environmental Science, 5(3): 77-81. 2008.

[37] T.I. Oyeyi and M.E.F. Lum-nwi, “Bacteriological quality of some street vended foods in Bayero University campuses, Kano, Nigeria”, Journal of Tropical Biology and Environmental Science, 5(4): 239-243. 2008.

[38] U. Shamsuddeen and J.B. Ameh, “Survey on the possible critical control points during the production of ‘balangu’ in Kano”. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 1(1): 76-79. 2008.

[39] A. Wada-kura, R.G. Maxwell, H-Y Sadiq, M.B. Tijjani, I.O. Abdullahi, M.S. Aliyu and O.A. Adetunji, “Microbiological quality of some ready-to-eat foods and fomites in some cafeterias in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria”, Journal of tropical Biology and Environmental Science. 6(1):6-9. 2009.