Pregnant Students Of Secondary Schools As Descendants Of Unwed Mothers: Some Lessons To Learn
Rosenda M. Wamelda, Grace Santa T. Daclan, EdD, Gloria P. Gempes, EdD, Dm
educational management; pregnant students as descendants of unwed mother; some lesson to learn; Philippines
This phenomenological study was designed to determine the experiences of pregnant secondary school students aged 12-19 students who were descendants of unwed mothers. In-depth-interview and focus group discussion were applied with 14 pregnant students who were utilized in selecting the participants of the study. The participants revealed that their experiences were on humiliation and disdain, remorse, fear and insecurity, escape and remediation, support and love, financial constraints, and acquiescence. Their coping mechanisms were being positive about the situation, having the aid and support of the family, faith and hope to the divine God and the wisdom of the family. Importantly, the teenage mothers valued the lessons learned from the experience, the values of resilience and elasticity, resolution and repentance for what they have done, and hopes and dreams for the future.
 Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1973). The development of infant-mother attachment. In B.Cardwell & H. Ricciuti (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 3, pp. 194) Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
 Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. New York: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis).
 Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
 Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961).Transmission of aggression through the imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575- 582.
 Barn, R.& Mantovani, N. (2007). Young mothers and the care system: contextualizing risk and vulnerability. British Journal of Social Work; 37(2):225‐243.www.hounslow.gov.uk/ jsna2011teenagepregnancychildrenincar
 Benson, M. J. (2004). After the adolescent pregnancy: parents, teens, and families. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 21(5), 435-455
 Bersamin, M; Todd, M.l; Fisher, D.A.; Hill; D. L.& Grube, J. (2008). Parenting and Adolescent Sexual risk behavior. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272735812000189
 Bersamin et al.,(2008). & L. B. Witbeck, R. L. Simons, and M. Y. Kao, (1994) Intact Family and Family stability. “Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study,” Journal of Marring and Family 70 (February 2008): 97-112.
 Boyatzis, R.E. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks, London, & New Delhi: SAGE Publications. Copyright 2008 President & Fellows Harvard University. All Rights Reserved.
 Boyce, C. and Neale, P. (2006). Conducting in-depth interview: A guide for designing and conducting in-depth interviews for evaluation. http://www.pathfind.org/ site/ DocServer/m_e_tool_series_indepth_interviews.pdf?docID=6301.
 Bloomberg,D. (2013.) Economic and social reasons behind teenage pregnancy but poverty that causes teen pregnancy.”www.thetimesinplainenglish.com/.teenagepregnancy poster-in-nyc. http:/www.bloomberg.com.
 Building Strong Families (2005). Engaging families: building strong communication United States (ICPSR 29781) Retrieved on March 5, 2016 from http://www.icpsr. umich.edu /icpsrweb/ ICPSR/ studies/29781
 Bunting, L. & McAuley, C. (2004). Research review: teenage pregnancy and motherhood: the contribution of support. Child and Family Social Work 9, 207-215.
 Brien, M.J., Loya, G.E. & Pepper, J.V. (2002) Teenage childbearing and cognitive development. Journal of Population Economics, 15, 391-416.
 Conley,D., Bennett N.,G.(2001). Birth weight and income: Interactions across Generations. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2001;42(4):450–465.
 Cherlin, A.,Cross-Barnet, C; & Burton, L., M.; Garrett-Peters,Raymond(2008) :Journal of Marriage and Family, v70 n4 p919-933 Nov 2008.
 Child Trends. (2010). Pregnant/Parenting teens Diploma Attainment among Teen others. Fact Sheet. Washington DC: Perper K, Peterson K, Manlove J.
 Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. 3rdned.n SAGE Publications, Inc. California.
 Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed). Upper saddle River river, NY: Pearson Education.
 Crotty, M. (2006). Research Design in Qualitative/ Quantitative and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. www.sagepub.com/ sites/ default/files/ upm-binaries/41165_10.pdf
 Domenico, D. M. & Jones, K. H. (2007). Adolescent pregnancy in America: causes and responses. The Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education 30(1).
 Duncan,G. &Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage.
 Drew, C.J. (2007). Ethical issues in conducting research. https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upmbinaries/26094_3.pdf.
 Edin,K. & Kefalas,M. (2005) Promises I Can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood Before Marriage. University of California Press. 2005
 Eloundou-Enyegue & Strokes (2004), The impact of teenage pregnancy on school dropout among secondary school girls in Embu Municipality, Munich, GRIN Verlag,http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/ 199931 /the- impact- of- teenage- pregnancy - on school-dropout-among-secondary-school.
 Ermisch, J. & Pevalin, D.J. (2003). Does a ‘teen birth’ have longer-term impacts on the mother? Evidence from the 1970 British Cohort Study. ISER Working Paper No.2003-28,University of Essex, October.
 Eshbaugh, E. M. (2011). College students’ positivity toward teen mothers. Journal of Family Social Work 14, 237-246.
 Francesconi, F.(2008). Adult Outcomes for Children of Teenage Mothers. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 110: 93–117. doi: 10.1111/ j.1467.
 Frank, DA , & Walker, BS.(2015) Effects of social supports on attitudes and behaviors of pregnant adolescents. Adolescent pregnancy Teenage pregnancy: Washington,D.C. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Adolescent Health.
 Friedman,S. (2009). Personality and adolescent pregnancy outcomes.Detroit, Michigan: Greenhaven Press, 2009. http://emilyfriedman.com/
 Garfinkel, I. (1986). Single Mothers and Their Children: A New American Dilemma, Washington, DC: Urban Institute
 Gempes,Gloria P. “Locus of control and work commitment of baby boomers and generation X.”Liceo Journal of Higher Education Research 5, no.2 (2008):104-118
 Geronimus, A. T. & S. Korenman. (1992). "The Socioeconomic Consequences of Teen Childbearing Reconsidered." The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107(4): 1187 1214.
 Ghanaian Chronicle,(2009). Children are a gift from God, an Issue Not Fully Unveiled. Retrieved on March 5, 2016 from allafrica.com/stories/200806040885.html
 Gill, P., Stewart, K.,Treasure, E. & Chadwick, B. (2008). Methods of data collection qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. http://www.nature.com/ bdj /journal/v204/n6/full/ bdj.2008.192.html. British Dental Journal 204, 291 295(2008).Published online: 22 March 2008 doi:10.1038/ bdj.2008.192. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
 Given, L.M. & Saumure, K. (2008). Trustworthiness. Retrieved on March 6, 2016 from http:// knowledge sage pub.com/view/ research/ n470.xml. Pub. Date 2008 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2008 | DOI: http // dx.doi.org/ 10.4135/9781412963909 | Print ISBN: 9781412941631 |Online ISBN: 9781412963909 | Publisher SAGE Publications.
 Groenewald, T. (2004). A phenomenological research design illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(1). Article 4. Retrieved on April 19, 2016 fromqhttp://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/3_1/html/groenewald.html
 Guba, E. G. & Lincoln, Y. S. (1989). Fourth generation evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
 Hamilton B. E., Martin J. A., Ventura S. J. (2006). Births: Preliminary data for 2008. National vital statistics reports vol. 58, no 16. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
 Hancock, B.,Ockleford,E. & Windridge,K. (2007). An Introduction to Qualitative Research.The NIHR’RDS EM/YH.
 Harknett, K. S., & Hartnett, C. S. (2011). Who lacks support and why? An examination of mothers’ personal safety nets. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73(4), 861–875.
 Harknett,K.S.(2011). Non marital births: An overview . Trends and the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43667.pdf • PDF file.
 Harper, D, (2000). “Reimagining visual methods” in Handbook of Qualitative Research 2nd. Ed., edited by Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
 Hobcraft, J. and Kiernan, K. E. (2001). 'Childhood Poverty, Social Policy and Social Work University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK Tel: work
 Holloway, I. (2008). Basic concepts of qualitative research. Oxford: Blackwell Science
 Hotz, J., McElroy, S. & Sanders, S. (1997). The impacts of teenage childbearing on the mothers and the consequences of those impacts for government. In RebeccaMaynard (Ed)., Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy (pp. 55-94). Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute Press.
 Hotz J., Mc Elroy S. & Sanders S., (2005). Teenage Childbearing and its Life Cycle Consequences: Exploiting a Natural Experiment, The Journal of Human Resources, Vol.40, No. 3, pp-683-715.
 Huang C,. Mincey R.B., & Garfinkel, I., (2005). Child Support Obligations and Low-Income Fathers. Journal of Marriage and Family. 2005;67 (5):1213–1225.
 Hycner, R. H. (2004). Some guidelines for the phenomenological analysis of interview data. In A. Bryman & R. G. Burgess (Eds.), Qualitative research (Vol. 3, pp. 143164). London: Sage.
 Kapunan,R.R. (1997). Fundamental of guidance & counseling.
 Kennedy,S., & Bumpass, L. (2008). Cohabitation and children's living arrangements: New estimates from the United States. Demographic Research,19,1663-1692.10.4054/ Dem Res.2008.19.4
 Kenneth, J. H., & Kasper, B. (1992). International adoption: The exploitation of women and children. Affilia Women and Social Work, 7(1), 45-58.
 Klaw, E. (2008). Understanding urban adolescent mothers’ vision of the future in terms of possible selves. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 18(4),441-461.
 Klein, J. D. (2005). Adolescent pregnancy: current trends and issues. Pediatrics 116, 281-286.
 Kreider,R, & Ellis,R. (2011) Sexual orientation differences in teen pregnancy and hormonal. www.science direct.com/ science/ article/pii / S0002937813006522
 Singh T, (2007). "Outcome of teenage pregnancy". Indian journal of pediatrics 74 (10): 927–931. doi:10.1007/ s12098-007-0171-2. PMID 17978452.
 Kunz, M. (2015) The effects of a single parent home on a child's behavior. Dirkriehle.com/uploads/ by hand/ theses/ 2015/kunz_2015_arbeit.pdf
 Legard R, Keegan J, & Ward K. (2003) In-depth interviews. In Ritchie J, Lewis J (eds) Qualitative research practice: a guide for social science students and researchers. pp 139-169. London: Sage Publications,2003.
 Levine, J.A., Pollack, H. & Comfort, M.E. (2001). Academic and behavioral outcomes among the children of young mothers. Journal of Marriage & Family, 63, (2),355369
 Levine DI, Painter G.(2003). The schooling costs of teenage out-of-wedlock childbearing: Analysis with a within-school propensity-score-matching estimator. Rev Econ Stat.November 2003;85(4):844-900
 Lincoln, Y.S. & Guba,E.G..(2000). Naturalistic inquiry, Beverly hills,C.A. SAGE.
 Lochmiller,C.R. & Lester,J.N. (2016). : An introduction to educational research: Connecting methods to practice: Education policy analysis Archives, Journal of School Leadership, Journal of Research on Leadership Education, and Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership. (SAGE Publications)http://www.bokus.com/bok/9781483319506/an-introduction-to-educational-research.
 Lockhart, L. L. & Wodarski, J. S. (1990). Teenage pregnancy: implications for social work practice. Family Therapy 17(1), 29-47.
 Malambo, R. (2000) Teach them while they are young, they will live to remember. The views of teachers and pupils on the teaching of HIV/AIDS in basic education: A case study of Zambia’s Lusaka and Southern Provinces Current Issues in Comparative Education, 3, 1–13
 Manning, W.D. & Bulanda ,R.E. (2007). Cohabitation and measurement of family trajectories.Handbook of Measurement Issues in Family Research. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., Sutton, P.D., Ventura, S.J., Menacker, F. & Kirmeyer, S (2007). Birth: final data for 2005. National Vital Statistics Reports, 56, 1-104.
 Martinez, G. M., Daniels, K., & Chandra, A. (2012). Fertility of men and women aged 15-44 years in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-2010.National health statistics reports, 51. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Table 12. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr051.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2016.
 McLanahan, S. S. & Sandefur, G. (2005). Growing up with a single parent: What hurts, what helps? Cam-bridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
 McLanahan,S.S. (2001.). The transmission of Marital Instability across Generations: Relationship Skills or Commitment to Marriage? Journal of Marriage and Family 63 November 2001, 1038-1051
 McNeely, C., Shew, M. L., Beuhring, T., Sieving, R., Miller, B. C., Blum, R. W. M. (2002). Mothers’ influence on the timing of first sex among 14 & 15 year olds. Journal ofAdolescent Health 31(3), 256-265.
 Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
 Morrow, S. L. (2005). Quality and Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association 2005, Vol. 52, No. 2, 250 260
 Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological Research Methods Thousand Oaks, CA:SAGE
 Murphey, D.Bandy,T. & Moore, KA. (2012). Frequent residential mobility and young children’s well-being. Child Trends Research Brief (02). Available at: http:/ www.childtrends.org .wpcontent/uploads/2016/05/201202ResidentialMobility.pdf(accessed March2016)
 Nkwi, P. (2001) .Qualitative and Quantitative Research. Retrieved on March 5, 2016 from http://www.researchomatic. com/ Qualitative-And-Quantitative-Research-45385.html
 Osborne C, & McLanahan S.(2007). Partnership instability and child well-being. Journal Of Marriage and Family. 2007;69:1065–1083.
 Palinkas, L.A. (2015). Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research. http://www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/24193818.Adm Policy Mental Health. 2015 Sep;42 (5):533-44.doi: 10.1007/ s10488013-0528-y.PMID: 24193818. U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA.
 Patton,G. (2010).• Children in single parent families 'worse behave’www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/8064435/Children.
 Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research
 methods (2nd ed.).Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
 Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd Ed.). London:SAGE.
 Patton, (2015) Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methodshttp://www.johnljerz.com/superduper/tlxdownloadsiteWEBSITEII/id384.hml
 Pearlin LI, Schieman S, Fazio EM,& Meersman SC.(2005). Stress, health, and the life course: Some conceptual perspectives. Journal of Health and Social Behavior.2005;46: 205–219.
 Qualitative Research Consultants Association (2015).What isQualitativeResearchhttp://www.qrca.org/?pagewhatisqualresearch Copyright 2015 Qualitative Research Consultants Association 651-290-7491 | 888-674-7722 firstname.lastname@example.org
 Ribar, D.C. (1994). Teenage fertility and high school completion. Review of Economics And Statistics, 76, 413-24.. Volume 1, issue 3, Pages 279-302. SAGE Publication.
 Roulston, K. (2001). Data analysis and 'theorizing as ideology'. Qualitative Research, 1, 279-302.
 Rutman, D., Strega, S., Callahan, M., & Dominelli, L. (2002). ‘Underserving’ mothers? Practioners’ experiences working with young mothers in/from care. Child and Family Social Work 7, 149-159.
 Sara,R. (1989). Maternal thinking: pages 291.Beacon Press; May 10, 1989
 Siegel, D. (2008). Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Research http:/www.academia.edu/ 997438/ Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Research
 Singh S, (2006). Induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Guatemala. IntFam Plan Perspect, 2006; 32 (3):136–145.
 Shenton,A.K. ,(2004). Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for Information,vol.22,no.2pp.6375,2004.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/228708239 Strategies for Ensuring Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research Projects.
 Smith, J., Flowers, P. & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: Theory, Method and Research. : SAGE.
 Smith,R. (2016). Exploring Qualitative Research Methods in Youth and Community Work Saturday 16th January, 2016: Manchester Metropolitan University.
 Streubert, H.J. (2000) on Qualitative Phenomenological Research http://www.amazon. co.uk/Qualitative-Research-Nursing-Humanistic-Imperative/dp/0781796008
 Swedish, K. A., Rothenberg, A., Fuchs, K., & Rosenberg, G. (2010). Successful life navigation by former participants in a group for pregnant and parenting teens. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies 5(4), 310-321.
 Taylor,C., Funk,F. & Clark,.T. (2007) About Teen Pregnancy, The children of teenage mothers are more likely to have lower school achievement and American Journal of Public Health.2007;97(1).
 Thorne, S. (2000).Data analysis in qualitative research. http://ebn.bmj. com/content/3/3/68.full. Copyright © 2015 by BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & RCN Publishing Company Ltd
 Trochim, W.M. (2006). Qualitative validity. Web Center for Social Research Method. Retrieved on March 04, 2016 from http://www. Credibility Qualitative Validity.html
 Triwulan, T. T. (2009). Islamic law analysis towards unwanted pregnancies abortions due to raped based on Laws Number 36 year 2009 regarding health. Semarang: Faculty of Law Universitas Diponegero
 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health (2012).Promising strategies and existing gaps in supporting pregnant and parenting teens: summary of expert panel workgroup meetings. Retrieved on May 12, 2016 from http://www.hhs.gov.
 Van Der Westhuizen, G.J. (1999). What happens to data in evaluation research? Paper presented at the Qualitative Research in Education Conference, RAU, Johannesburg.
 Waity,J. (2008). Children of Unwed Teen Mothers: Reasons, Outcomes and Solutions www.researchgate.net/ publication/ 242089955 Children of UnwedTeen
 Wang, J. (1997). Pre-marital pregnancy in Shanghai. China Population Today, 14(5), 1819.
 Wiemann, C. M., Rickert, V. I., Berenson, A. B., & Volk, R. J. (2005). Are pregnant adolescents stigmatized by pregnancy? Journal of Adolescent Health 36.W.
 Willis, J.W.(2007). Foundations of qualitative research: Interpretive and critical approaches, Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (2007) 367 pages.
 Whitehead, B. (1993). Understanding the association between teenage pregnancy and intergenerational factors: A comparative and analytical study School of Health and Social Care, University of Chester, Parkgate Road, Chester, Cheshire CH1 4BJ. UK.
 Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage