International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us

IJSTR >> Volume 7 - Issue 1, January 2017 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Estimation Of Private Health Expenditure In Cyprus

[Full Text]









This research aims at documenting and studying the origin and distribution of private health expenditure in Cyprus, with focus on the economic relations between the health system and households, whether they involve standard transactions or underground (black) economy. In this context, a specially developed questionnaire was used, gathering data from 400 households from all over Cyprus, via telephone interviews. The recording and processing of data and results was performed with the use of the statistical platform SPSS, applying methods of descriptive and inferential statistics on the available data, in order to present the results of both the first-degree statistical analysis, which included studying the frequency distribution of alternative answers provided by the participants and those of the second-degree statistical analysis as well, which investigated the possible relations between the participants’ demographics or other information and their decisions regarding the dissemination of private health expenditure.



[1] Anagnostopoulou, I. et al., 2011. Investigation of the intent of patients to participate in the cost in the health center of Atalante.Hellenic Medicine Files, 28(6), pp. 777 - 784.

[2] Antonoglou, D., 2015. Black Economy in Health – A Questionnaire Survey in Greece.

[3] Antonoglou, D., Koufopoulou, P. &Vozikis, A., 2013. BlackEconomyinHealth : Worldwide Trends & Prospects for the Greek Health System. Athens.

[4] Arkkelin, D., 2014. Using SPSS to Understand Research and Data Analysis. In : Psychology Curricular Materials. Book 1.

[5] BASYS, 2014. SHA Results of Health Account Data in Europe. Final Report.

[6] Beazoglou, Kyriopoulos & Heffey, 1997. Human Resources Supply and Cost.

[7] Bessis, N., 1993. Private Health Services. Athens: IOBE.

[8] CyStat, 2009. Family Budget Survey

[9] CyStat, 2016. National Accounts.

[10] Democracy of Cyprus, Ministry of Health , 2014. Health System in Cyprus. Availableat: http://www.moh.gov.cy/moh/cbh/cbh.nsf/page01_gr/page01_gr?OpenDocument

[11] Dimitroulakis, P., n.d. Introduction to the Use of SPSS, A Statistical Package for Social Sciences.Sitia.

[12] Economou, A. V., 2008. Social, Economic and Professional Dimensions in Health and in Demand of Health Services by Labour Members in EU Countries, Salonica.

[13] Efthimiou, K., Argalia, E., Kaskampa, E. &Makri, A., 2013. EconomicCrisisandMental Health : The current situation in Greece. Engefalos, Vol. 50, pp. 22 - 30.

[14] ElStat, 2016. Concise Methodological Note on the System of Health Accounts according to SHA 2011 manual.

[15] Ernst & Young, 2016. Health Sector Dynamics.

[16] European Commission, 2016. Public Health. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/systems_performance_assessment/health_systems_organisation/sha_en#fragment1

[17] EuropeanCommittee, 2011. Reducing inequalities in health in the European Union, Luxemburg: European Union.

[18] EuroStat, 2015. National Accounts and GDP.

[19] Eurostat, 2016. Household Budget Surveys.

[20] Garth, A., 2008. Analysing data using SPSS.

[21] Geert van der Berg, R., 2016. Stepwise Regression in SPSS - Example. Available at: http://www.spss-tutorials.com/stepwise-regression-in-spss-example/

[22] Gingrich, P., 2015. Association Between Variables.

[23] Greer, S. L., Hervey, T. K., Mackenbach, J. P. & McKee, M., 2013. Health Law and Policy in the European Union. The Lancet, 381(9872).

[24] Grundy, E. et al., 2013. Ageing in the European Union. The Lancet, 381(9874).

[25] Hanson, K. & Berman, P., n.d. Private Health Care Provision in Developing Countries : A preliminary analysis of levels and composition, Boston, Massachussets.

[26] Health Insurance Organization, 2014. Available at: http://www.hio.org.cy/gr/

[27] Ioakeimoglou, I., 2010. Health services. From Public Good to Merchandise, Athens: Employment Institute (GSEE-ADEDY).

[28] IatroNet, 2013. ‘Fakelaki’ and payments with no receipt, despite the crisis. Available at: http://www.iatronet.gr/eidiseis-nea/perithalpsi-asfalisi/news/24102/fakelaki-para-tin-krisi-sto-ena-trito-i-paraoikonomia-stin-ygeia.html

[29] Karadimitri, V., 2005. Complementary Sickness Insurance Systems in Countries - EU Members, Kalamata.

[30] Karanikolos, M. et al., 2013. Financial Crisis, Austerity and Health in Europe. The Lancet, 381(9874).

[31] Kartzi, G., 2007. The Factors Shaping Public and Private Health Expenditure in Greece During the Period 1970-2004. TheRoleofGDPPerCapita, Demographic Ageing and Medical Inflation, Athens: National School of Public Administration.

[32] Kassinidou, K., 2014. Cyprians pay heavy for their health. Available at: http://www.philenews.com/el-gr/top-stories/885/194480/akrivoplironoun-kai-tin-ygeia-tous-oi-kyprioi

[33] Ke, X. & Priyanka, S., 2011. The Determinants of Health Expenditure. A Country-Level Panel Data Analysis, Geneva: World Health Organization.

[34] Kent State University, 2014. SPSS Tutorials. Crosstabs. Available at: http://libguides.library.kent.edu/SPSS/Crosstabs

[35] KEPE, 2014. Future Trends and Challenges in Health Care, Athens: Interamerican Group.

[36] Kontogrouni, A., 2002. Cost Control Measures in Health Systems – Focus on Microefficiency – Empirical Results, Athens.

[37] Kontopoulos, A., 2009. First-Degree Healthcare in Cyprus as an Imperative Need for the Success of General Health System.

[38] Kumar, R., 2006. Cross-Tabulation and Chi-Square Test : Testing association between two ordinal or nominal variables (Crosstabs - Chi-square test).

[39] Kyriopoulos, G. &Karalis, G., 1997. Recent Developments in Black Economy. Health Inspection.

[40] Liaropoulos, 2005. University Notes of the Postgraduate Course "Organization of Health Systems", Athens.

[41] Liaropoulos, L. &Nikolaou, S., 2002. The OECD Methodology for Measuring Health Expenditures. In: Health Expenditure in Greece. Athens: Papazisi Editions.

[42] Mackenbach, J. P., Karanicolos, M. & McKee, M., 2013. The Unequal Health of Europeans: Successes and Failures of Policies. The Lancet, 381(9872).

[43] Malliarou, M. &Sarafis, P., 2012. Economic Crisis. Influence on the Citizens’ Health and on Health Systems. To Vima tou Asklipiou, 11(1), pp. 202 - 212.

[44] Mavroforaki, K. &Frydaki, E., 2014. Determination of Private Insurance Customer Profiles: Bancassurance Customers - Classics Distribution Network Customers, Heraklion.

[45] Mercer , 2013. Actuarial Study of Cyprus National Health Expenditure and National Health System.

[46] Ntounis, A., 2016. Health At A Glance : Europe 2014 - Infographic. Available at: http://socialpolicy.gr/2016/07/%CE%B7-%CF%85%CE%B3%CE%B5%CE%AF%CE%B1-%CE%BC%CE%B5-%CE%BC%CE%B9%CE%B1-%CE%BC%CE%B1%CF%84%CE%B9%CE%AC-%CE%B5%CF%85%CF%81%CF%8E%CF%80%CE%B7-2014-infographic.html

[47] OECD / WHO / Eurostat, 2011. A System of Health Accounts : 2011 Edition. Paris: OECD Publishing.

[48] OECD Data, 2015. Health Spending. Available at: https://data.oecd.org/healthres/health-spending.htm

[49] OECD, 2000. A System of Health Accounts. Paris: OECD Publications Service.

[50] OECD, 2005. Electronic Health Data Base, Paris: OECD Publishing.

[51] OECD, 2014. Health at a Glance : Europe 2014. OECD Publishing.

[52] OECD, 2015. Focus on Health Spending : OECD Health Statistics 2015.

[53] Okello, N. O. & Njeru, A., 2015. Factors Affecting Out-of-Pocket Medical Expenditure Among Out Patients in Hospitals in Nairobi County. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(6).

[54] Papanastasatos, G., 2006. The Economic Sustainability of Public Hospitals as Independent Financial Entities, Athens.

[55] Pappas, N., 2008. The Development of Private Health Sector and the Role of the Greek Health System, Athens: National Center of Public Administration.

[56] Passiardis, P., Passiourtidou, N. &Rostanti, N., 2006. Essays on Economic Policy.

[57] Preker, A. S., Zweifel, P. & Schellekens, O. P., 2010. Global Marketplace for Private Health Insurance. Strength in Numbers. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

[58] Quinnipiac University, 2016. Meaning of Pearson's. Available at: http://faculty.quinnipiac.edu/libarts/polsci/Statistics.html

[59] Rakliti, M., Tanakaki, M. &Kyloudis, P., 2012. Health Expenditure in the Greek Health System in Relation to International Experience. PerioperativeNursing, 1(1).

[60] Rechel, B. & McKee, M., 2014. Facets of Public Health in Europe. Berkshire: European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.

[61] Ricciardi, W., 2013. Health in Europe - Policies for Progress. The Lancet, 381(9872).

[62] Scientific Committee for The Support of the Reform of the First-Degree Healthcare, 2013.KeypointsoftheReformProposal., Athens

[63] StatisticsHowTo, 2016. Phi Coefficient (Mean Square Contingency Coefficient). Available at: http://www.statisticshowto.com/phi-coefficient-mean-square-contingency-coefficient/

[64] StatisticsSolutions, 2016. Conduct and Interpret the Chi-Square Test of Independence. Available at: http://www.statisticssolutions.com/chi-square-2/

[65] Siskou, O., n.d. The Black Economy in Health: The First Results of A Nationwide Survey. Availableat: http://www.ygeianet.gr/images/site/1505/936_large/olga_siskoy__h_paraoikonomia_sthn_ygeia__ta_prwta_apotelesmata_ths_panelladikhs_ereynas_.pdf

[66] Siskou, O.., 2006. Assessment of Private Health Expenditure in Greece, Athens.

[67] Stylianidis, K., Petrou, M. &Lepoura, N., 2012. Moral Hazard And Induced Demand: Measures To Address Them, The Extent Of Occurrence In Cyprus And Interventions At The Level Of Organization And Financing Of The Health System.

[68] Tanzi, Y., 1982. The Underground Economy in the U.S and Abroad. Oxford: Blackwell.

[69] The NNT Group, 2010. Diagnostics and Likelihood Ratios, Explained. Availableat: http://www.thennt.com/diagnostics-and-likelihood-ratios-explained/

[70] Theodorou, M., Charalambous, C., Petrou, C. & Cylus, J., 2012. Cyprus Health System Reviw. Health Systems in Transition, 14(6).

[71] Theodotou, M., 2015. The Main Features Of GHS – Issues Of The Current Health System.

[72] Thomas, K., 2013. Financial Management of Private Health Units, Patra.

[73] Tooke, J., 2011. The Future of Healthcare in Europe, London: UCL European Institute.

[74] Tsaousi, I. &Ntouros, G., 2002. FamilyBadgetSurvey : Calculation of Health Expenditure.

[75] White, D. R., Korotayev, A. & Khaltourina, D., 2004. Using SPSS: Analysis and Comparison in the Social Sciences. Irvine: University of California Irvine.

[76] WHO, 2004. The Impact of Health Expenditure on Households and Options for Alternative Financing, s.l.: Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean.

[77] WHO, 2016. Health Accounts. Available at: http://www.who.int/health-accounts/methodology/en/

[78] WHO, 2013. ConceptsandPrinciplesfortheTreatment of Social Inequalities in Health. UpwardEquation, Nicosia: TechnologicalUniversityofCyprus.