IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT
QR CODE
IJSTR-QR Code

IJSTR >> Volume 6 - Issue 11, November 2017 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



Predictive Factors Associated With Hypertension Alone, Diabetes Alone And The Coexistence Of Both Among Adults In Ghana.

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Ekpereka S. Nawfal, Christine Unson, Chinyere Okeke, Evi Abada

 

KEYWORDS

Coexistence of hypertension and diabetes, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, waist circumference, BMI.

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive factors associated with hypertension alone, diabetes alone and the coexistence of both among adults in Ghana. Hypertension and diabetes are known silent killers. Cardiovascular disease is one of the ten leading causes of death worldwide, and it is noted that hypertension and diabetes are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This was a cross-sectional study design using self-reported secondary data from World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), Ghana – 2007/8, wave 1 and the data was analyzed using SPSS version 23 with statistical significant level at p=0.05. A total number of 5573 samples were analyzed for the study. The participants were aged 18years and above with an average age of 60.19 years (SD = 14.06). Hypertension and diabetes variables were documented for 5089 (91.3%) and 5090 (91.3%) respondents respectively. Out of the number of documented respondents, 12.1% had hypertension, 3.5% had diabetes, while 1.5% had coexistence of hypertension and diabetes. Bivariate analyses result showed that gender, age, BMI, waist circumference and physical activity were independently significantly associated with hypertension alone, diabetes alone and the coexistence of both. Multivariate analyses revealed that age has the greatest impact on the three dependent variables.

 

REFERENCES

[1] World Health Organization (W.H.O), “Fighting non-communicable diseases: Africa’s silent killers.” African health monitor.8 (1), Jan/June, 2008.

[2] J-C. Katte, A. Dzudie, E. Sobngwi, E.N. Mbong, G.T. Fetse, C.K. Kouam, and A-P. Kengne, “Coincidence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in a semi-urban Cameroonian population: a cross-sectional study.” BMC Public Health, 14:696, 8 July, 2014, doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-696, retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/14/696

[3] J. Kayima, R.K. Wanyenze, A. Katamba, E. Leontsini, and F. Nuwaha, “Hypertension awareness, treatment and control in Africa: A systematic review.” BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 13 (54), 2 Aug. 2013, doi:10.1186/1471-2261-13-54, retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2261/13/54#

[4] W.H.O., “About diabetes. Diabetes program,” retrieved from http://www.who.int/diabetes/en/ on 27 Oct. 2015.

[5] W.H.O., “Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications,” report of a WHO consultation, http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/philip.home/who_dmg.pdf,1999

[6] International Diabetes Federation (I.D.F), “About diabetes,” retrieved from http://www.idf.org/about-diabetes, 2015

[7] A.G.B. Amoah, S.K. Owusu, and S. Adjei, “Diabetes in Ghana: a community based prevalence study in Greater Accra," Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 56(3):197-205, June 2002, retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168822701003746

[8] International Diabetes Federation (I.D.F), “IDF Diabetes Atlas, 6th edn. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation,” https://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/EN_6E_Atlas_Full_0.pdf, 2014

[9] I.D.F., “IDF Diabetes Atlas, 5th edn. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation,” http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas, 2013

[10] M. Moeti, “Non-communicable diseases: An overview of Africa’s new silent killers,” W.H.O African health monitor.8 (1): 2 – 5, Jan/June, 2008

[11] W.H.O., “A global brief on hypertension: Silent killer, global public health crisis,” World Health Day 2013, retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/79059/1/WHO_DCO_WHD_2013.2_eng.pdf

[12] American Heart Association (AHA)., “The facts about high blood pressure,” retrieved from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/AboutHighBloodPressure/About-High-Blood-Pressure_UCM_002050_Article.jsp#.Vk8_inarTrc, 2014

[13] E. Ferrannini, and W.C Cushman, “Diabetes and hypertension: the bad companions,” The Lancet, 380(9841), 601-610, 11 Aug. 2012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60987-8

[14] U.K.P.D.S. Group, “Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes,” UKPDS 38. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 317(7160), 703-713, 1998

[15] J.R. Sowers, and E. Murray, “Diabetes mellitus and associated hypertension, vascular disease, and nephropathy - an update,” American Heart Association, 1995;26:869-879 retrieved from http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/26/6/869.full

[16] J.M. Kirigia, “The economic burden of diabetes mellitus in the WHO African region,” W.H.O African health monitor.8 (1): 49–57, Jan/June, 2008

[17] K.O. Sharaye, K.V. Olorunshola, J.O. Ayo, and C.E. Dikki, “Correlation of obesity indices and blood pressure among non-obese adults in Zaira, Northern Nigeria,” Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 6(1); 8-13, Jan. 2014, Doi: 10.5897/JPHE2013.0590.

[18] K.B. William, “Epidemic of hypertension in Ghana: a systematic review,” BMC Public Health, 10:418, 14 July 2010, doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-418, retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/418

[19] C. Agyemang, M.A Bruijnzeels, and E. Owusu-Dabo, “Factors associated with hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in Ghana, West Africa,” Journal of Human Hypertension, 20, 67–71, 2006, doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001923

[20] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (C.D.C), “Global health – Ghana,” retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/countries/ghana/pdf/ghana_factsheet.pdf, 2016

[21] M.M. Ibrahim, and A. Damasceno, “Hypertension in developing countries,” The Lancet, 380(9841), 611-619, 11 Aug. 2012, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60861-7

[22] P. Lusamba-Dikassa, “Strategic perspectives for preventing and controlling non-communicable diseases in Africa,” WHO African Health Monitor, 8 (1): 6–9, Jan/June, 2008

[23] D.T Jamison, L.H Summers, G. Alleyne, K.J Arrow, S. Berkley, A. Binagwaho, . . .& G. Yamey, “Global health 2035: a world converging within a generation,” The Lancet, 382(9908), 1898-1955, 7 Dec. 2013, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62105-4

[24] E. Ferrannini, “The haemodynamics of obesity: a theoretical analysis,” Journal of Hypertension, 10(11):1417-23, Nov. 1992, retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/jhypertension/Abstract/1992/11000/The_haemodynamics_of_obesity__a_theoretical.15.aspx

[25] J.L. Izzo, “Hypertension in the Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes: Pathogenesis, Clinical Studies, and Treatment,” The Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(6 suppl 4):3-10, Nov/Dec.2003, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1524-6175.2003.02670.x/pdf

[26] B.B. Kahn, and J.S. Flier, “Obesity and insulin resistance,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, 106(4), 473-481, 15 Aug. 2000, doi: 10.1172/JCI10842

[27] L.M. Browning, S.D. Hsieh, and M. Ashwell, (2010). “A systematic review of waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for the prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: 0.5 could be a suitable global boundary value,” Nutrition Research Reviews, 23(02), 247-269, Dec. 2010, doi: 10.1017/S0954422410000144

[28] I. Danquah, G. Bedu-Addo, K-J. Terpe, F. Micah, Y.A. Amoako, Y.A. Awuku, . . .and F.P. Mockenhaupt, (2012). “Diabetes mellitus type 2 in urban Ghana: characteristics and associated factors,” BMC Public Health, 12, 210, March, 2012, doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-210

[29] J.S. Leal-Neto, R.S. Coqueiro, R.S. Freitas, M.H. Fernandes, D.S. Oliveira, and A.R. Barbosa, “Anthropometric indicators of obesity as screening tools for high blood pressure in the elderly,” International Journal of Nursing Practice, 19: 360–367. Aug. 2013, doi: 10.1111/ijn.12085, retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23915404

[30] S. Stewart de Ramirez, D.A Enquobahrie, G. Nyadzi, D. Mjungu, F. Magombo, M. Ramirez, S.E Sachs, and W. Willett, “Prevalence and correlates of hypertension: a cross-sectional study among rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa,” Journal of Human Hypertension, 24: 786–795; doi:10.1038/jhh.2010.14, 11 Mar. 2010, retrieved from http://www.nature.com/jhh/journal/v24/n12/full/jhh201014a.html

[31] L. Gueye, P. Duboz, and P. Macia, “Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults 50 years and older in Dakar, Senegal,” Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, 23(5), 265–269, June 2012, doi:10.5830/CVJA-2011-039, retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3721830/

[32] K.O. Buabeng, L. Matowe, and J. Phange-Rhule, “Unaffordable drug prices: the major cause of non-compliance with hypertension medication in Ghana,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7(3):350-352, 12 Nov. 2004, retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/7914172/Unaffordable_drug_prices_the_major_cause_of_non-compliance_with_hypertension_medication_in_Ghana

[33] S.R. Gambert, and S. Pinkstaff, “Emerging Epidemic: Diabetes in Older Adults: Demography, Economic Impact, and Pathophysiology,” American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Spectrum, 19(4), 221-228, Oct. 2006, https://doi.org/10.2337/diaspect.19.4.221

[34] C.E. Ekpenyong, N.E. Udokang, E.E. Akpan, and T.K. Samson, “Double burden, non-communicable diseases and risk factors evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa: The Nigerian experience,” European Journal of Sustainable Development, (2012) 1, 2, 249-270.

[35] K.P. Msyamboza, B. Ngwira, T. Dzowela, C. Mvula, D. Kathyola, A.D. Harries, C. Bowle, “The burden of selected chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in Malawi: National STEPS Survey,” PLoS One, 6(5):e20316, 23 May 2011, doi:10-1371/journal.pone.0020316

[36] A.E. Schutte, R. Schutte, H.W. Huisman, J.M.V. Rooyen, C.M.T. Fourie, N.T. Malan,…. A. Kruger, “Are behavioural risk factors to be blamed for the conversion from optimal blood pressure to hypertensive status in Black South Africans? A 5-year prospective study,” International Journal of Epidemiology 41:1114–1123, Aug. 2012, doi:10.1093/ije/dys106

[37] K. Steyn, and A. Damasceno, “Lifestyle and Related Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases. Disease and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa,” 2nd edition. Washington (DC): World Bank, 18: 1-38, 2006, available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2290/

[38] F.K. Assah, U. Ekelund, S. Brage, J.C. Mbanya, and N.J Wareham, (2011). “Urbanization, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Health in Sub-Saharan Africa,” American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 34(2), 491-496. doi: 10.2337/dc10-0990, Feb. 2011, retrieved from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/34/2/491.full

[39] E. Sobngwi, J-C.N. Mbanya, N.C. Unwin, A.P. Kengne, L. Fezeu, E.M. Minkoulou, T.J. Aspray, and K.G.M.M Alberti, “Physical activity and its relationship with obesity, hypertension and diabetes in urban and rural Cameroon,” International Journal of Obesity, 26(7); 1009-1016, July 2002, retrieved from http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v26/n7/full/0802008a.html

[40] F.J. He, C.A.Nowson, M. Lucas, and G.A MacGregor, “Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies,” Journal of Human Hypertension, 21(9), 717-728, Sept. 2007

[41] T.A. Aksnes, S.E. Kjeldsen, M. Rostrup, O. Störset, T.A. Hua, and S. Julius, (2008). Predictors of new-onset diabetes mellitus in hypertensive patients: the VALUE trial. Journal of Human Hypertension, 22, 520-527, 29 May, 2008, doi:10.1038/jhh.2008.41

[42] B.A Nimako, F. Baiden, S.O Sackey, and F. Binka, “Multimorbidity of chronic diseases among adult patients presenting to an inner-city clinic in Ghana,” Globalization and Health, 9, 61, 26 Nov. 2013, doi:10.1186/1744-8603-9-61

[43] R. Biritwum, G. Mensah, A. Yawson, and N. Minicuci, “Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1,” The Ghana national report, 2013

[44] K.Z. Gebreselassie, and M. Padyab, “Epidemiology of hypertension stages in two countries in Sub-Sahara Africa: Factors associated with hypertension stages,” International Journal of Hypertension, Article ID 959256, Vol.(2015), 7 Nov. 2014, retrieved from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijhy/aa/959256/cta/

[45] E. Pinto, “Blood pressure and ageing,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, 83(976), 109-114, 2017, doi:10.1136/pgmj.2006.048371

[46] M.D. Joshi, R. Ayah, E.K. Njau, R. Wanjiru, J.K Kayima, E.K. Njeru, and K.K. Mutai, (2014). “Prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya: a population-based survey,” BMC Public Health, 14, 1177, 18 Nov. 2014, doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1177

[47] R.H. Eckel, S.E. Kahn, E. Ferrannini, A.B. Goldfine, D.M. Nathan, M.W. Schwartz, R.J. Smith and S.R. Smith, “Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: What Can Be Unified and What Needs to Be Individualized?” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 96(6), 1654-1663, June 2011, doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0585

[48] R.S. Paffenbarger Jr., M.C. Thorne, and A.L. Wing, Chronic disease in former college students. VIII. Characteristics in youth predisposing to hypertension in later years. American Journal of Epidemiology, 88(1), 25-32, 1 July 1968

[49] J.L. Boyer, and F.W. Kasch, “Exercise therapy in hypertensive men,” Jama, 211(10), 1668-1671, 9 March 1970

[50] K.M. Diaz, and D. Shimbo, “Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension,” Current hypertension reports, 15(6), 659-668, Dec. 2013, doi:10.1007/s11906-013-0386-8

[51] D.E.R. Warburton, C.W. Nicol, and S.S.D. Bredin, “Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence,” CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174(6), 801-809, 14 March 2006, doi:10.1503/cmaj.051351

[52] E.B. Fisher, M.L. Fitzgibbon, R.E. Glasgow, D. Haire-Joshu, L.L. Hayman, R.M. Kaplan, M.S. Nanney, and J.K. Ockene, “Behavior Matters,” American journal of preventive medicine, 40(5), e15-e30, May 2011, doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.12.031