IJSTR

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

IJSTR@Facebook IJSTR@Twitter IJSTR@Linkedin
Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
CALL FOR PAPERS
AUTHORS
DOWNLOADS
CONTACT
QR CODE
IJSTR-QR Code

IJSTR >> Volume 2- Issue 12, December 2013 Edition



International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616



Wetland Plant Dominance, Density And Biomass In Mara River Basin Wetland Upstream Of Lake Victoria In Tanzania

[Full Text]

 

AUTHOR(S)

Marwa Muraza, Aloyce W. Mayo, Joel Norbert

 

KEYWORDS

Index Terms: Lake Victoria, Mara River Wetland, Plant dominance, biomass, Cyperus papyrus, Typha domingensis, Phragmites australis

 

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The dominance, density and biomass of wetland plants were investigated in Mara River wetland upstream of Kirumi Bridge. The study site was surveyed to identify the suitable sampling points in the wetland. In-situ identification of plants was done in order to determine the vegetation zonations. Transects were developed at the inlet and outlet zones of the wetland where sampling points were established and identified by global positioning system. A transect survey was conducted through the wetland prior to determination of plant types, dominance and density. A vegetation zonation by dominant plant community was estimated using ground transects surveys. The determination of above ground and below ground biomass was done by separating plants into leaves/umbel, stack/culm, shoot, rhizomes and roots, depending on the plant type. The results show that the dominant plant species were Cyperus papyrus, Typha domingensis, Phragmites australis, Thelpteris interrupta, Echnocloa pyramidalis, Cyperus articulatus, Chara spp., Eichhornia crassipes "water hyacinth" and Azola spp., which accounted for more than 50% of all the species recorded are an indication of a typical wetland habitat. Cyperus papyrus, Typha domingensis and Phragmites australis were the most dominant species in the wetland. Cyperus Papyrus had higher biomass content of 4.3 kgDWm-2 than the rest of the species followed by Phragmites (3.74 kgDWm-2), but Typha domingensis had the least biomass content of the three with only 2.71 kgDWm-2. The above ground biomass for Cyperus Papyrus accounted for 65% of the total biomass for the same plant. However, Typha domingensis had only 57% of the total biomass above ground. The average plant density was 3.2 plants/m2 and the mean plants nitrogen content was found to be 67.88 gNm-2.

 

REFERENCES

[1]. CEC (1995). Wise Use and Conservation of Wetlands, Communication from the commission to the council and European parliament, Commission of the European Communities, Com (95), vol. 189, pp 154.

[2]. Dugan, P.J (1990). Wetland Conservation: A review of current issues and required actions, IUNC, Gland, Switzerland, pp 96.

[3]. Maltby, E. (1990). Water logged Wealth: Why waste the World’s wet places?, Earth Science Press, London, U.K.

[4]. Hogan, D.V., Maltby, E., Lloyd, J.W., Baker, C.J. (1992). Water resources management and the protection of the wetland functioning, NRA: Research and Development Priorities, NRA Wessex Region.

[5]. Mitchell, D.S. (1994). Flood plain wetlands of the Murray- Darling basin: management, issues and challenges, NSW, Australia.

[6]. Mitsch, W.J., Gosselink, J.C. (1986). Wetlands, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, USA.

[7]. Allinson, G., Stagnitti, F., Salzman, S., Hill, R.J., Cordell, S., Smith, L. (2000). Strategies for the sustainable management of industrial wastewater: Determination of the chemical dynamics of a cascade series of five newly constructed ponds, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Vol. B, No. 25, pp 629-634.

[8]. Bullock, A., Acreman, M. (2003). The role of wetlands in hydrological cycle, Hydrology of the Earth Systems Science, Vol. 7, pp 358-389.

[9]. Chague-Goff, C., Rosen, M.R., Eser, P. (1999). Sewage effluent discharge and geothermal input in a natural wetland: Tongoririo Delta, New Zealand, Journal of Ecological Engineering, vol. 12, pp 149-170.

[10]. Machefact, S.E., Dise, N.B., Goulding, K.W.T., Whitehead, P.G. (2002). Nitrous oxide emission from a range of land uses across Europe, Journal of Hydrolology of Earth System Science, Vol. 6, pp 325-337.

[11]. WWF-Tanzania Program Office (TPO) (2006). Mara River Basin Management Initiative, Musoma, Tanzania.

[12]. Nile Basin Initiative (2007). Transboundary Environmental Action Project, National Nile Basin Water Quality Monitoring Baseline Report for Tanzania, http://www.nileteap.org/docs/publications/WQ/WQ_Baseline_report_Tanzania.pdf. Retrieved on 3rd November, 2011.

[13]. Bitala, M., Kweyunga, C., Manoko, M. (2009). Levels of heavy metals and cyanides in soil, sediments and water from the vicinity of north Mara gold mine in Tarime district, Tanzania, presented to CCT.

[14]. Mayo, A.W. and Bigambo, T. (2005). Nitrogen transformation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands I: Model development. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Vol. 30, 658~667.

[15]. Senzia, M.A., Mashauri, D.A. and Mayo, A.W. (2003). Suitability of constructed wetlands and waste stabilization ponds in wastewater treatment. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Vol. 28, 1117~1124.

[16]. Senzia, M.A., Mashauri, D.A. and Mayo, A.W. (2004). Modelling nitrogen transformation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites Mauritianus. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1~15.

[17]. Kalibbala, M., Mayo, A. W., Asaeda T. and Shilla D.A. (2008). Modelling faecal streptococci mortality in constructed wetlands with Eichhornia crassipes. Wetland Ecol. Management, Vol. 16, 499~510.

[18]. Mayo, A. W. and Kalibbala, M. (2007). Modelling Fecal Coliform Mortality in Water Hyacinths Ponds. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Vol. 32, 1212~1220.

[19]. Lake Victoria Environmental Management Program (LVEMP) (2005). Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project Tanzania, Second Supplemental credit, Musoma, Tanzania.

[20]. Mati, B., Mutie, S., Home, P., Mtalo, F., Hussein, G (2005). Land use changes in the transboundary Mara basin: A threat to pristine wildlife sanctuaries in East Africa.

[21]. Global Water for Sustainability Program (GLOWS) (2007). Maps, http://globalwaters.net/glows/Publications/Maps/tabid/109/Default.aspx. Retrieved on November 4th, 2011.

[22]. Carpenter, J. R. (1956). An Ecological Glossary, Hafner Publishing Company, New York, USA.

[23]. Greig-Smith, P. (1986). Chaos or Order: Organization. In Kikkawa, J., Anderson, D.J. (editors), Community Ecology, Melbourne, Australia, Pattern and Process, Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp 19-29.

[24]. Ricklefs, R.E., Miller. G.L. (1990). Ecology, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA.

[25]. Frieswyk, C.B., Johnston, C., Zedler. J.B. (2009). Quantifying and Qualifying dominance in vegetation, Journal of Great Lakes Research, Vol. 33, Special Issue 3, 123-135.

[26]. Novozamsky, I., Houba, V. J.G.,Van Eck., Van Vark, W. (1983). A novel digestion technique for multi-element plant analysis, Community in soil science plant analysis, vol. 14, pp 9248.

[27]. Muthuri F.M. and Jones M.B. (1997). Nutrient distribution in a papyrus swamp: Lake Naivasha, Kenya, Aquatic Botany, Vol. 56, 35-50.

[28]. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater (2012). American Water Works Association, American Public Health Association, Water Pollution Control Federation, Water Environment Federation, 18th edition, Washington, DC.

[29]. Hume, N.P., Fleming, M.S., Horne, A.J. (2002). De-nitrification potential and carbon quality of four aquatic plants in wetland microcosms, Soil Science Society American Journal, Vol. 66, pp 1706-1712.

[30]. Senzia, M.A. (2003). Modeling of nitrogen transformations and removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands during treatment of domestic waste water, PhD. Thesis, Department of Water Resources Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

[31]. Denny, P. (1985). Research, capacity building and empowerment for sustainable management of African wetland ecosystems, Journal of Hydrobiol, Vol. 7, pp 21– 31.