Effect Of Chromiumon Antioxidant Enzymeactivityin Some Sorghum(Sorghum Bicolor L.) Genotypes Plant
HajoElzeinElhassan, AbdelWahab HassanAbdalla, El Busra El Shiekh El Nur
Key words: chromium, malate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chromium on enzymatic activity of sorghum genotypes grown under polluted conditions. Ten sorghum genotypes, (Tabat, Wad Ahmed, L4, L7, L12, L14, L16, L25, L32 and L34) were obtained from the Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture University of Khartoum, grown in Polyethylene bags filled with 2 kg soil (clay and sand, 2:1). Two weeks after sowing, seedlings of grown plants were irrigated with eight levels of chromium (Cr VI) concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/l.) for 15 days. Samples of plants were taken three times (at 8th, 12th, and 15th days) after chromium application to measure the enzymatic activity, namely, malate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase. The results revealed that the level of enzyme activity increased significantly with increase in chromium concentration. Also the rate of increase in enzymatic activity, depend mainly on genotype and age of the plant. These findings suggest that, the activity of antioxidant enzymes of sorghum play a significant role in plant defense system.
. Zayed, A. M. and Terry, N. (2003). Chromium in the environment: factors affectingbiological remediation. Plant and Soil. 249: 139–156.
. Gupta, C. U. and Gupta, S. C. (1998). Trace elements toxicity relations to crops production and livestock and human. Implication for management communication of soil science and plant analysis, 29: 1491- 1522
. Baxter, J. C., Aguilar, M. and Brown, K. (1983). Heavy metals and persistent organics at a sewage sludge disposal site. J. Environ Qual. 12: 311– 316.
. Breusegem, F. V., James, F., Dat, D. and Inze, D. (2001). The role of active oxygen species in plant signal transduction. Plant Sci. 161: 423-431.
. Alscher, R. G., Donahue, C. L. and Crarner, C. L. (1997). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants: relationships in green cells. Physiol. Plant100: 224 - 233.
. Asahi, S. B. (1973). Regulatory function of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the cotyledons of mung bean.Journal of Biochemistry. 73:217-225.
. Brady, C. J., Longhurt, T. J. and Tung, H. F. (1990). Developmental regulation of the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase in ripening tomato fruits.Journal of Food Biochemistry, 14:421-433.
. Sukalovic, V. H. (1990). Properties of glutamate dehydrogenase from developing maize endosperm.PhysiologiaPlantarum., 80: 238 – 242.
. Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A. A. (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research.John-Willey and Sons, New York (1984).
. Samantaray, S., Rout, G. R. and Das, P. (1999). Studies on differential tolerance of mung bean cultivars to metallic ferrous mine wastes. Agribiol. Res. 52:193–201.
. Prasad, M. N. V. (1998). Metal biomolecule complexes in plants: occurrence, functions and applications. Analusis.26-28.
. Shanker, A. K., Sudhagar, R. and Pathmanabhan, G.( 2003a). Growth, Phytochelatin SH and antioxidative response of Sunflower as affected by chromium speci-ation. 2nd International Congress of Plant Physiology on sustainable plant productivity under changing environment, New Delhi, India.
. Gwozdz, E. A., Przymusinski, R., Rucinska, R. and Deckert, J. (1997). Plant cell responses to heavy metals: molecular and physiological aspects. ActaPhysiol Plant. 19:459 – 465
. Samantary, S. (2002), Biochemical responses of Cr-tolerant and Cr-sensitive mung bean cultivars grown on varying levels of chromium. Chemosphere. 47: 1065–1072.
. Divya, D. (1999). Screening of pea cultivars for cadmium toxicity and mechanism of cadmium-calcium interaction. Ph.D. Thesis, India: C.C.S. Harayana Agricultural University, Hisar